About The Kaʻū Calendar

Ka`u, Hawai`i, United States
A locally owned and run community newspaper (www.kaucalendar.com) distributed in print to all Ka`u District residents of Ocean View, Na`alehu, Pahala, Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, Volcano Village and Miloli`i on the Big Island of Hawai`i. This blog is where you can catch up on what's happening daily with our news briefs. This blog is provided by The Ka`u Calendar Newspaper (kaucalendar.com), Pahala Plantation Cottages (pahalaplantationcottages.com), Local Productions, Inc. and the Edmund C. Olson Trust.

Monday, January 30, 2023

Kaʻū News Briefs, Monday, Jan. 30, 2023

Hui Malama educators teach about the nutritional and medicinal value of Hawaiian plants at the
Vibrant Hawai'i Resilience Fair. Photo by Julia Neal

Vibrant Hawaiʻi Board Member Nicolas K.
 Los Baños, awardee Annie Momie Sobiona,
and Kaimi Kaupiko of Kalanihale in Miloli'i.
Photo by Cole Fuertes
VIBRANT HAWAI'I RECENTLY PRESENTED TWO KUPA ALOHA AWARDS TO KAʻŪ VOLUNTEERS during its Resilience Fair in Nāʻālehu. Honorees were Annie Momie Sobiono, nominated by Miloli'i Kalanihale; and Wayne Kawachi, nominated by Nāʻālehu Resilience Hub. The Network of Resilience Hubs was also involved in the awards program. A statement from Vibrant says the honorees' "efforts and work exemplify living aloha, building strong ʻohana, and thriving community."
   Hundreds of people in more than 50 ʻohana attended the Kaʻū Resilience Fair on Saturday, Jan. 21 at Nāʻālehu Hongawanji. Many community organizations participated to share information and resources, including Hawaiʻi Community Lending, Parents Inc., Kumukahi Health, Hawaiian Electric, Hawaiʻi Island Community Health Center, Hui Mālama Ola Nā ʻŌiwi, Hawaiʻi Animal Kuleana Alliance, and KTA Pharmacy, and Community First. 
    Families who visited at least ten of the organizations' presentations each took home a five-gallon bucket filled with essential emergency supplies and resources.
Wayne Kawachi wins a Kupa Aloha
Award, accompanied by Marsha
Masters of Nāʻālehu Resilience Hub.
Photo by Cole Fuertes
    Performances by Kaʻū youth highlighted resilience and sense of place. The Miloliʻi Kalanihale Resilience Hub demonstrated how ʻōpelu stocks are maintained according to traditional practices as part of their Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area, and the all girls Kaʻū 4H Club taught participants how to rope livestock.  
    The Kaʻū Resilience Fair is one of a series of community events planned by the Vibrant Hawai'i Resilience Hub network during the season of Makahiki to spotlight the work of over 40 Resilience Hubs across the island and increase community awareness and access to resources that build preparedness and resilience to both social vulnerabilities and natural disasters.
       "The Kaʻū Resilience Hubs: Miloliʻi Kalanihale, Nāʻālehu Resilience Hub, Oceanview Marshallese Hub, Pāhala Resilience Food Hub, and Root & Rise extend a heartfelt mahalo to Council Member Maile David and HPM Building Supply for their generous support," says the Vibrant statement.
    Vibrant Hawaiʻi is a non-profit organization on Hawaiʻi Island whose mission is to dismantle silos and increase collaborative partnerships. Vibrant says, "Our 40 Resilience Hubs are trusted, people-powered venues that support residents, adapt to the changing needs of the community, and activate in times of disaster to support emergency response and recovery efforts."
    To learn more about Resilience Hubs, visit www.vibranthawaii.
Darlyne Vierra at the Resilience Fair, with her display
of historic photos from paniolo life in Kaʻū.
Photo by Julia Neal

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at kaucalendar.com, in the mail and on stands.

U.S. HOUSE AGRICULTURE COMMITTEE is the new assignment for Jill Tokuda, new member of the U.S House of Representatives serving  and all of rural Hawai'i. Tokuda has been assigned to the House Agriculture Committee in the 118th Congress. "Agriculture impacts so much of our daily lives. Food programs and funding for our people, rural housing, land management and conservation, and combating invasive species. These are just a few areas we cover on the House Committee on Agriculture and, coupled with the reauthorization of the Farm Bill, provide enormous opportunities for Hawaii's Second Congressional District," said Tokuda.
    She is also assigned to the House Armed Services Committee. Tokuda said, "These two committees are critical in providing critical funding and resources to our state, and I am excited about the work ahead. Hawaii has long held a position of strategic importance for our national security. As headquarters of the
U.S. Rep. Jill Tokuda giving her first floor speech in Congress. The
new U.S. Representative for rural  Hawai'i has also been assigned to
 the House Agriculture Committee. Photo form Tokuda
U.S. Pacific Command and with all five services having a presence on the islands, the US Military is also one of the biggest economic drivers in our state. So many of our citizens and loved ones are proud active duty military and veterans, and I'm excited to be able to serve their interests on House Armed Services."
    In January, Tokuda was sworn in to the 118th Congress for Hawai'i's Second District and to its Asian Pacific American Caucus. She also gave her first floor speech in Congress.
U.S. Sen. Mazie Hirono held the position of
U.S. Rep. for Ka'u and all of rural Hawai'i years
ago. Tokuda assumed the position in January.
Photo from Tokuda
    Before becoming a member of Congress, Tokuda issued a survey for all of rural Hawai'i, asking constituents to identify their most important issues. Those listed were: Affordable Housing, Reproductive Health and Justice for Women; Campaign Finance Reform and Fighting Corruption; Paid Family and Medical Leave Programs; Diversifying Our Economy and Making Hawai'i A Renewable Energy Leader; quality Universal Childcare and Early Education Programs; Increasing Access to Quality Health and Mental Health Services; Community Safety and Gun Reform; Protecting The Environment and Fighting Climate Change; Reforming the U.S. Supreme Court; Supporting Our Veterans; Improving and Fully-funding K-12 Education and Other.
    Tokuda, a Kaneohe resident, who represents her area as well as Kaʻū and all of Hawai'i Island, Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, Kaho'olawe, Kaua'i and Ni'ihau, ended her survey with "What issues are important to you? And why?" She also asks, "What would you like Jill to know?"

In her new position, Tokuda follows Rep. Kai Kahele, Rep. Tulsi Gabbard, Rep.Mazie Hirono (now Senator) and Rep. Ed Case. All four spent much time in Kaʻū during the last 20 years. 

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at kaucalendar.com, in the mail and on stands.

Kīlauea summit eruption will be the topic at After Dark in the Park on Tuesday, 7 p.m., Kīlauea Visitor
Center auditorium. NPS Photo by Janet Wei

VOLCANO AWARENESS MONTH COMES TO AFTER DARK IN THE PARK on Tuesday, Jan. 31
Kīlauea summit water lake.
NPS Photo by P. Christianson
from 7 p.m. to 8 p.m. at Kīlauea Visitor Center auditorium. It is one of the many events during Volcano Awareness Month. Title of the presentation is Changes at the Summit of Kīlauea After 2018.
     In 2018, the lava lake within Halemaʻumaʻu crater drained and the caldera floor dropped by more than 1,600 feet (500 m). There has been a variety of activity within Halemaʻumaʻu since then. The first-ever documented water lake filled the bottom of the crater starting in summer 2019. It reached approximately 160 feet (50 m) deep before Kīlauea erupted again in December 2020. This eruption continued until May 2021. Kilauea was again quiet for about three months before it burst to life in September 2021. That eruption continued until December 2022.
     USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Geologist Drew Downs recounts these events and how the scientists continue to monitor activity at Kīlauea.
       Volcano Awareness Month and the After Dark in the Park series are supported, in part,  by the Friends of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park

FREE FOOD
St. Jude's Hot Meals are free to those in need on Saturdays from 9 a.m. until food runs out, no later than noon. Volunteers from the community are welcome to help and can contact Karen at pooch53@gmail.com. Location is 96-8606 Paradise Circle Drive in Ocean View. Those in need can also take hot showers from 9 a.m. to noon and use the computer lab from 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m.

Free Meals Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays are served from 12:30 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. at Nā'ālehu Hongwanji. Volunteers prepare the food provided by 'O Ka'ū Kākou with fresh produce from its gardens on the farm of Eva Liu, who supports the project. Other community members also make donations and approximately 150 meals are served each day, according to OKK President Wayne Kawachi.

OUTDOOR MARKETS
Volcano Evening Market, Cooper Center, Volcano Village, Thursdays, 3 p.m. to 6 p.m., with live music, artisan crafts, ono grinds, and fresh produce. See facebook.com.

Volcano Swap Meet, fourth Saturday of the month from 8 a.m. to noon. Large variety of vendors with numerous products. Tools, clothes, books, toys, local made healing extract and creams, antiques, jewelry, gemstones, crystals, food, music, plants, fruits, and vegetables. Also offered are cakes, coffee, and shave ice. Live music.

Volcano Farmers Market, Cooper Center, Volcano Village on Sundays, 6 a.m. to 10 a.m., with local produce, baked goods, food to go, island beef and Ka'ū Coffee. EBT is used for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, formerly Food Stamps. Call 808-967-7800.

'O Ka'ū Kākou Market, Nā'ālehu, Wednesdays, 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Contact Nadine Ebert at 808-938-5124 or June Domondon 808-938-4875. See facebook.com/OKauKakouMarket.

Ocean View Community Market, Saturdays and Wednesdays, 6:30 a.m. to 2 p.m., corner of Kona Drive and Highway 11, where Thai Grindz is located. Masks mandatory. 100-person limit, social distancing required. Gate unlocked for vendors at 5:30 a.m., $15 dollars, no reservations needed. Parking in the upper lot only. Vendors must provide their own sanitizer. Food vendor permits required. Carpooling is encouraged.

Sunday, January 29, 2023

Kaʻū News Briefs, Sunday, Jan. 29, 2023

Kaitlyn Fisher practicing her butterfly that took her to tenth place in the island finals. Photo by Darene Fisher

Trojan swim team back row Madison Fisher, Candace Keohuloa,
 Kaitlyn Fisher, Cheska Aurelio, Tayler Rasmussen and
 Alden Wells with student fan in front Mardani Sugai.
Photo by Darene Fisher
TROJAN SWIM TEAM TRAVELED TO THE ISLAND FINALS this weekend. Representing Kaʻū High and Volcano School of the Arts & Sciences, all six swimmers competed on Friday in the Big Island Interscholastic Federation preliminary. 
     The girls swam in two relay teams, the 200 Medley Relay, and the 200 Free Relay. Both relays made it to BIIF Finals. Seniors, Madison Fisher (backstroke), Tayler Rasmussen (breaststroke), Kaitlyn Fisher (butterfly) and Candace Keohulo (freestyle) received a fifth place finish. Madison Fisher, Cheska Aurellio, Candace Keohulo, and Kaitlyn Fisher received a seventh place finish in the the 200 Freestyle.       
    Competing in the Individual Events, Kaitlyn Fisher went to finals in 50 Freestyle obtaining 14th place, with the fastest time in her fastest swimming career. In the 100 Butterfly, she took 10th place. Madison Fisher competed in the finals, her 100 Backstroke earning her a 10th place finish. She was also the alternate for the 50 Freestyle. 
Chessika Aurellio practicing her breastroke.
Photo by Darene Fisher
     Alden Wells was the alternate for 50 freestyle, and 100 freestyle. Kaitlyn and Madison Fisher have been in competitive swimming since they were six years old in recreation, club, and high school swim teams in Parker Colorado. Tayler, Candace, Cheska, and Alden began swimming in Pahala with the novice league. Their coach is Darene Fischer.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at kaucalendar.com, in the mail and on stands.

THE INDUSTRIAL SOLAR PROJECT LONG SLATED FOR OCEAN VIEW houselots, in neighborhoods next to people's homes, is still in the works and before the state Public Utilities Commission. SPI, the developer, has asked the PUC to wave an oral hearing on the matter.
    SPI plans to build a 6.5-megawatt project on 27 house lots among existing homes in three Ocean View area residential subdivisions. Nineteen are slated for Ranchos, eight are planned for Kona South and one
Ranchos residents said over the years that they oppose
 leveling  landscape for  industrial solar farms. 
Photo by Annie Bosted

for Kula Kai. More than 300 residents signed a petition against the project, while former elected leaders, including then state Senator - now Gov. Josh Green, then State Rep. Richard Creagan, and then Council member Maile David, wrote letters to the PUC opposing the project.
    The project is the result of the Feed-In Tariff program, launched in 2008 to kick-start more renewable energy in Hawai'i. The intention of FIT was for owners of agricultural land to build small solar projects with a nameplate capacity of under 250 kWh. To prevent developers from using the program for large installations, the "one project, one TMK" rule was enacted. The idea was to allow only one 250 kW solar farm per lot described by a Tax Map Key number. However, in Ocean View where lots are designated "agriculture" and most of them three acres, solar farm developers are attempting to build multiple FIT projects on contiguous lots and on lots in close proximity to each other. One of the incentives is the existing three-phase power lines and roads n Ranchos and Kula Kai, which would serve the solar farms and be a cost-cutting incentive to developers, said Ann and Peter Bosted, who are residents in the area and oppose the project.
    They explained that solar developers were attracted to buying up lots in Ocean View because the FIT program offered a set of standardized purchase power rates that were very generous, at 23.6 cents per kWh. By comparison, current projects will earn about 9 cents per kWh for power that can be stored on batteries and available in the peak period. The Bosteds noted that the Ocean View solar farms would not have batteries, and would produce power for use during daylight hours. The Bosteds said that Hawai'i
One of the numerous OV meetings over the years, concerning
proposed industrial solar on house lotsPhoto by Annie Bosted

Island has a surplus of daytime energy, so it is likely that power from the Ocean View project would be "curtailed" or not used at all.
    Back in 2011, two entities aiming to run solar farms in Ocean View were the major players. Solar Hub Utilities held the rights to build 18 FIT projects in Ocean View, while a hui of RevoluSun principals in Honolulu had rights for nine.
    In 2012, Civil Beat ran a story labeling Solar Hub as a "queue squatter." Civil Beat also quoted the FIT's Independent observer's criticism of Solar Hub for not completing its projects on time. Civil Beat noted that Solar Hub put together the package and sold all its places in the FIT program to SPI, a solar developer then based in Shanghai, China. The PUC stated that FIT projects should not be considered commodities that could be bought and sold at a profit and ordered an audit of the program.
    Meanwhile, Hawaiian Electric deemed that the Ocean View project was so huge that a new substation. costing about $4-million would be required, and developers would need to share the cost. In 2013, RevoluSun ceded its FIT rights to SPI, which became the sole player.
    In 2015, HELCO and SPI held a meeting in Ocean View to announce the planned project. It was rowdy with residents expressing their disapproval and some vowing to sabotage the project. A month later, a
Ranchos residents are concerned that native trees
will be bulldozed for industrial solar farms.
Photo from phrc.us.
community meeting was held with Rep.Creagan and Councilwoman David. West Hawai'i Today ran stories covering community concerns, as did The Kaʻū Calendar.
    Residents described feeling threatened by the industrialization of their rural community. If allowed to be built, they said, each three-acre facility would be surrounded by an eight-foot tall security fence, adorned with signs reading "Danger", "High Voltage" and "Keep Out."
    Non-Kaʻū residents were also quoted by West Hawaiʻi Today as expressing concern – Stephen Holmes of the Sierra Club said the cost of the power would be too expensive, while Marco Mangelsdof, a solar company owner in Hilo, called the FIT program a "fiasco" and a "boondoggle". Hermina Morita, a former head of the PUC, stated "The purpose of the FIT was to encourage smaller projects, not as a loophole for larger projects, which would have been negotiated under different terms."
    On Feb. 15, 2016, then-head of the PUC, Randy Iwase, chaired a meeting in Ocean View. The meeting was required for the proposed construction of a new transmission line to connect the project to the grid. The meeting quickly turned to concerns about the overall project. Residents contended that it did not belong in the FIT program. Some called it a scam, boondoggle, and backdoor route to industrialization. State Rep. Richard Creagan told the PUC chair that he was planning to change the law. The PUC Chair told the Ocean View residents that their complaints "had not fallen on deaf ears
    In August 2016 the Bosteds submitted a formal complaint about the project to the PUC. They alleged that HECO and HELCO had mismanaged the FIT Program and should not have allowed the Ocean View project into the program. Iwase immediately ordered a hold on the project until the Bosted complaint could be investigated. Over six years later, that hold is still in place.
    Since then, SPI has been fighting to keep the project alive through a plethora of filings, including discovery, position statements, and a failed attempt to have the issue decided by arbitration. In 2016 there were 13 filings contributed to the docket by the Bosteds, HELCO, SPI, and the Commission; in 2017, there were 28; In 2018 there was one; in 2019 there were six; In 2020 there were 24 and in 2021 there were 12.
A ground-mounted solar array on one lot, similar to those planned for Ranchos on 26 separate lots,
 this one from enspisolar.com.

    In December 2019, the Commission identified a prior decision, dubbed the Monet precedent, made by the PUC in 2011, that FIT projects could not be combined into one utility-scale project, even if the "one project, one TMK" rule was met if the project was centrally managed. The Commission asked the parties to argue whether the Ocean View project was centrally managed. Now the Commission must decide if the Ocean View projects should be considered individually or in the aggregate for purposes of determining whether they comply with the Commission's directives concerning the FIT Program and the Competitive Bidding Framework.
    In 2022, SPI filed a motion asking the Commission to skip the oral hearing, which has been scheduled since 2016, and go straight to a decision.
Ranchos and other Ocean View residents testified before the PUC's Randy Iwase
about 
industrial solar proposed on lots in their neighborhood.
Photo from Big Island Video News
   Peter Bosted said, "We really need an oral argument in order to confront SPI with evidence. The Commission has narrowed down our case to whether the Monet decision applies to the Ocean View project. We argue that it fits like a glove. But SPI is pushing a narrative that ignores a lot of salient facts – such as the fact that Solar Hub and RevoluSun were the original applicants, not SPI
    "SPI now has it set up so that each of the FIT projects in Ranchos and Kula Kai is owned by an LLC, or a shell company, which is the basis of their argument that the project is not centrally managed. However, when Solar Hub got the places, it was just Solar Hub. One company with 17 places, which they sold en-masse to SPI in a deal. Actually, it was three deals – firstly a sale, but when they got into trouble for that, they made it a loan, then when the dust settled made it a sale.
    "Today, SPI refuses to acknowledge any of that. We filed copies of checks written by SPI to cover their Road Maintenance fees, proving that SPI is, in fact, running the show. We have evidence of their getting County building permits as a block. There is correspondence between HELCO and SPI showing that SPI staff speak for the entire 6.5 Megawatt project.
Industrial solar farms would bring fenced in lots in residential
neighborhoods in Ocean View. Photo by Annie Bosted
  "Evidence abounds. But we are not lawyers. We cannot go toe to toe with SPI's resources. They argue harder and stronger. We have the facts, but they have the gab.
    "In addition, the three commissioners have changed drastically. Mr. Iwase retired soon after the PUC got our complaint. The commission under James Griffin identified the Monet precedent, but his term expired in mid-2022. Now, only one member of that commission, Mr. Leo Asuncion remains. We have two new commissioners. Are they going to wade through six years of filings? How many PUC lawyers were on staff for the past six years? If the case is just judged by SPI's most recent filings, we could lose as that narrative ignores salient points. We need to present our case directly to the current commissioners.
    "One of the commissioners is a former principal of RevoluSun, and a member of the hui that planned a five-megawatt FIT project for 20 contiguous lots in Ocean View. Another was an attorney with a large law firm and she repeatedly appeared for HECO and advocated for the company in numerous cases. If they both recuse due to conflicts of interest, then Mr. Asuncion will be the sole decider of this case. We need to 
talk story with him," said Bosted.
    "We really are in a David and Goliath situation," Bosted added.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at kaucalendar.com, in the mail and on stands.

                                    Cultural Resource Management Jobs at Hawai'i Volcanoes
Hiring until Monday: Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park has three full-time, temporary positions available. Those considering a career in cultural resource management can find out more athttps://go.nps.gov/HAVOjobs through Jan. 30. Jobs include: Museum Technician, Archeologist, Archeological Technician. Job announcements are not through USAJOBS. Click the link above for more information. NPS Photo
FREE FOOD
St. Jude's Hot Meals are free to those in need on Saturdays from 9 a.m. until food runs out, no later than noon. Volunteers from the community are welcome to help and can contact Karen at pooch53@gmail.com. Location is 96-8606 Paradise Circle Drive in Ocean View. Those in need can also take hot showers from 9 a.m. to noon and use the computer lab from 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m.

Free Meals Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays are served from 12:30 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. at Nā'ālehu Hongwanji. Volunteers prepare the food provided by 'O Ka'ū Kākou with fresh produce from its gardens on the farm of Eva Liu, who supports the project. Other community members also make donations and approximately 150 meals are served each day, according to OKK President Wayne Kawachi.

OUTDOOR MARKETS
Volcano Evening Market, Cooper Center, Volcano Village, Thursdays, 3 p.m. to 6 p.m., with live music, artisan crafts, ono grinds, and fresh produce. See facebook.com.

Volcano Swap Meet, fourth Saturday of the month from 8 a.m. to noon. Large variety of vendors with numerous products. Tools, clothes, books, toys, local made healing extract and creams, antiques, jewelry, gemstones, crystals, food, music, plants, fruits, and vegetables. Also offered are cakes, coffee, and shave ice. Live music.

Volcano Farmers Market, Cooper Center, Volcano Village on Sundays, 6 a.m. to 10 a.m., with local produce, baked goods, food to go, island beef and Ka'ū Coffee. EBT is used for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, formerly Food Stamps. Call 808-967-7800.

'O Ka'ū Kākou Market, Nā'ālehu, Wednesdays, 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Contact Nadine Ebert at 808-938-5124 or June Domondon 808-938-4875. See facebook.com/OKauKakouMarket.

Ocean View Community Market, Saturdays and Wednesdays, 6:30 a.m. to 2 p.m., corner of Kona Drive and Highway 11, where Thai Grindz is located. Masks mandatory. 100-person limit, social distancing required. Gate unlocked for vendors at 5:30 a.m., $15 dollars, no reservations needed. Parking in the upper lot only. Vendors must provide their own sanitizer. Food vendor permits required. Carpooling is encouraged.



Saturday, January 28, 2023

Kaʻū News Briefs, Saturday, Jan. 28, 2023

Chinese New Year was celebrated this week at Volcano School of the Arts & Sciences. It's the Year of the Rabbit.
Photo by Michelle Buck

CHINESE NEW YEAR was celebrated throughout January, with most festivities to wrap up Feb. 4 with a Lantern Celebration and family and friend reunions in Chinese communities. The Year of the Rabbit runs from Jan. 22, 2022 into Feb. 9, 2024, the next Chinese New Year's Eve.

PreK students parade for Year of the Rabbit at
Volcano School of the Arts & Sciences.
    Years of the Rabbit are 1927, 1939, 1951, 1963, 1975, 1987, 1999, 2011 and 2021. Each is attached to an Element, with this year's being water, the last Rabbit year being gold. The one before was earth the those before it were fire and wood.
    Those born in the Year of the Rabbit are said to be ingenious, witty, quick-minded and vigilant. They are also known to be gentle, quiet, elegant, and alert as well as quick, skillful, kind, patient, and very responsible.
    At Volcano School of the Arts & Sciences, students recently learned about Chinese culture by reading books, watching videos and decorating the classroom, as well as the parading around the campus.
    
    To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at kaucalendar.com, in the mail and on stands.

KILAUEA GETS WEIGHED IN is the title of this week's Volcano Watch, written by USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists and affiliates:                   Measurements of gravity can be used to determine how mass is distributed beneath a volcano. Microgravity surveys can measure changes in the subsurface mass. At Kīlauea, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory performs routine microgravity surveys to monitor volcanic activity and to determine changes in gravity. 
    The Kīlauea microgravity monitoring network is comprised of about 50 benchmarks. Annual microgravity surveys are crucial in confirming whether ongoing uplift or subsidence is caused by magma intrusion or withdrawal. HVO conducts these surveys using small, shoebox-sized instruments called relative gravimeters that can measure a change in the force of gravity to one-in-one billionth of the force you feel every day.
    Measurements of gravity can be used to determine how mass is distributed beneath a volcano. Microgravity surveys can measure changes in the subsurface mass. At Kīlauea, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory performs routine microgravity surveys to monitor volcanic activity and to determine changes in gravity. The Kīlauea microgravity monitoring network is comprised of about 50 benchmarks. Annual microgravity surveys are crucial in confirming whether ongoing uplift or subsidence is caused by magma intrusion or withdrawal. HVO conducts these surveys using small, shoebox-sized instruments called relative gravimeters that can measure a change in the force of gravity to one-in-one billionth of the force you feel every day.
Hawaiian Volcano Observatory volunteer Claire Ruggles measures variations in the strength of gravity
(grey box) and precise location (GPS on antenna) at the summit of Kīlauea. She is a Ph.D. candidate
 at University of Wisconsin -Madison. USGS photograph by HVO geophysicist A. Flinders

    A single gravity measurement consists of leveling a small baseplate (less than 1 foot or 30 cm diameter and 3 inches or 8 cm tall) on the ground, placing the gravimeter on the baseplate, and making a five-minute measurement. Along with gravity, high-precision positions are also collected using GPS.
    Gravimeters are extremely susceptible to vibration, so hard and stable surfaces, like solid rock outcroppings, are required to take a measurement. The measurements are non-invasive and do not disturb the ground.
    In addition to tracking changes over time, gravity surveys can be used to map the density characteristics of the ground beneath the surface. These “Bouguer” surveys, named after an 18th-century French geophysicist, measure the gravity at hundreds to thousands of locations at a single point in time and do not need the repeatable location benchmarking or precision of microgravity surveys.
    Bouguer surveys use the same relative gravimeters that are used for microgravity surveys, but measurements are tied to a reference “base station,” where the actual value of gravity has been
determined absolutely. 
    While both microgravity and Bouguer surveys are used to determine how mass is distributed beneath a volcano, microgravity surveys are used to model changes in these parameters, whereas Bouguer surveys can reveal the overall characteristics of the materials at depth. Two-and three-dimensional Bouguer models can provide insights into the geologic structure of volcanoes including identifying magma reservoirs, intrusions, landslide and collapse piles, and unexposed faults. At Kīlauea, they’ve also been used to define likely areas of hydrothermal fluid circulation. Together, microgravity and     Bouguer data can see not only subsurface structure, but also changes within that structure.
    Bouguer surveys have been a routine tool at Kīlauea for more than seven decades, with the two most recent summit surveys performed in 2009 and 2000. Over the month of January, a three-person team comprised of HVO geophysicist Ashton Flinders, University of Wisconsin Madison PhD candidate Claire Ruggles, and UW student Sophia Thompson measured gravity at over 400 locations around Kīlauea’s summit. Their Bouguer gravity survey will be the first to address significant large-scale changes associated with the 2018 caldera collapse. Seismic velocity and density are fundamentally related and results from this gravity survey will be used to help refine the model developed from the anticipated summer 2023 Kīlauea summit seismic study. If you see three orange-shirted scientists hiking around Kīlauea summit, carrying a shoebox-sized case and a long pole with a GPS antenna on the top, that’s us! Feel free to stop and say “aloha,” we love to talk about what we’re doing and why.
                     Cultural Resource Management Jobs at Hawai'i Volcanoes
Hiring until Monday: Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park has three full-time, temporary positions available. Those considering a career in cultural resource management can find out more athttps://go.nps.gov/HAVOjobs through Jan. 30. Jobs include: Museum Technician, Archeologist, Archeological Technician. Job announcements are not through USAJOBS. Click the link above for more information. NPS Photo
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VOLCANO ACTIVITY UPDATES: Kīlauea is erupting. Its USGS Volcano Alert level is at WATCH. Kīlauea updates are issued daily. Kīlauea volcano's summit eruption in Halemaʻumaʻu crater within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park continues. Activity is concentrated in a large lava lake in the eastern half of the crater, as well as a smaller lake to the west, in the basin of the 2021–2022 lava lake. Summit tilt has shown several deflation/inflation trends over the past week. Summit earthquake activity remains low and eruptive tremor (a signal associated with fluid movement) is present. A sulfur dioxide emission rate of 3,000 tonnes per day was measured on January 20. For Kīlauea monitoring data, see https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/past-week-monitoring-data-kilauea.
Yuko White walked the most miles in the Kahuku
Unit of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, earning her
the 2022 Kūkini Challenge award. Photo from NPS
    Mauna Loa is not erupting. Its USGS Volcano Alert Level is at ADVISORY. Mauna Loa updates are issued weekly on Thursdays. Webcams show no signs of activity on Mauna Loa. Seismicity remains low.
Deformation rates show inflation somewhat above background levels, but this is not uncommon following eruptions. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates are at background levels. For Mauna Loa monitoring data, see: https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/mauna-loa/monitoring-data.
     There were four earthquakes with 3 or more felt reports in the Hawaiian Islands during the past week: a M3.6 earthquake 13 km (8 mi) ESE of Pāhala at 30 km (18 mi) depth on Jan. 24 at 10:35 p.m. HST, a M3.1 earthquake 17 km (10 mi) ESE of Nāʻālehu at 35 km (21 mi) depth on Jan. 23 at 11:58 p.m. HST, a M3.1 earthquake 16 km (9 mi) E of Nāʻālehu at 35 km (22 mi) depth on Jan. 21 at 10:27 p.m. HST, and a M3.0 earthquake 8 km (4 mi) E of Pāhala at 31 km (19 mi) depth on Jan. 20 at 12:32 a.m. HST.
   HVO continues to closely monitor the ongoing eruption at Kīlauea, and Mauna Loa.
    Please visit HVO’s website for past Volcano Watch articles, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa updates, volcano photos, maps, recent earthquake info, and more. Email questions to askHVO@usgs.gov.

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MOST MILES WALKED IN THE KAHUKU UNIT OF HAWAI'I VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK has earned Yuko White the 2022 Kūkini Challenge award. She recorded 245.6 miles this past year and probably walked twice that if she counted the miles her dogs traveled with her.
    Non-profit partner Hawai‘i Pacific Parks Association, rangers presented Yuko with a Kahuku logo t-shirt designed by Dietrich Varez and Bark Ranger bandanas for her faithful canines.
    Another Kahuku regular, Sylvia Pena again earned the “Most Miles Walked” title for the fourth and final quarter of 2022. Rangers presented Sylvia with a red thermal Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park flask to help keep her hydrated on the trails at Kahuku.
Sylvia Pena again earned the Most Miles Walked title
for the fourth and final quarter of 2022. NPS photo
 

    A statement from Hawai'i Volcanoes says, "We congratulate both of these wonderful wahine as Kahuku Kūkini Challenge winners!  Even though the challenge is pau (over) we invite everyone to take a hike. Kahuku is peaceful and serene with no crowds. One of eight beautiful trails is sure to match your abilities and goals. Kahuku is open Thursday through Sunday from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. and entrance is free!" For more information, visit https://www.nps.gov/havo/planyourvisit/kahuku.htm.

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FREE FOOD
St. Jude's Hot Meals are free to those in need on Saturdays from 9 a.m. until food runs out, no later than noon. Volunteers from the community are welcome to help and can contact Karen at pooch53@gmail.com. Location is 96-8606 Paradise Circle Drive in Ocean View. Those in need can also take hot showers from 9 a.m. to noon and use the computer lab from 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m.

Free Meals Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays are served from 12:30 p.m. to 3:30 p.m. at Nā'ālehu Hongwanji. Volunteers prepare the food provided by 'O Ka'ū Kākou with fresh produce from its gardens on the farm of Eva Liu, who supports the project. Other community members also make donations and approximately 150 meals are served each day, according to OKK President Wayne Kawachi.

OUTDOOR MARKETS
Volcano Evening Market, Cooper Center, Volcano Village, Thursdays, 3 p.m. to 6 p.m., with live music, artisan crafts, ono grinds, and fresh produce. See facebook.com.

Volcano Swap Meet, fourth Saturday of the month from 8 a.m. to noon. Large variety of vendors with numerous products. Tools, clothes, books, toys, local made healing extract and creams, antiques, jewelry, gemstones, crystals, food, music, plants, fruits, and vegetables. Also offered are cakes, coffee, and shave ice. Live music.

Volcano Farmers Market, Cooper Center, Volcano Village on Sundays, 6 a.m. to 10 a.m., with local produce, baked goods, food to go, island beef and Ka'ū Coffee. EBT is used for Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, formerly Food Stamps. Call 808-967-7800.

'O Ka'ū Kākou Market, Nā'ālehu, Wednesdays, 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Contact Nadine Ebert at 808-938-5124 or June Domondon 808-938-4875. See facebook.com/OKauKakouMarket.

Ocean View Community Market, Saturdays and Wednesdays, 6:30 a.m. to 2 p.m., corner of Kona Drive and Highway 11, where Thai Grindz is located. Masks mandatory. 100-person limit, social distancing required. Gate unlocked for vendors at 5:30 a.m., $15 dollars, no reservations needed. Parking in the upper lot only. Vendors must provide their own sanitizer. Food vendor permits required. Carpooling is encouraged.