About The Kaʻū Calendar

Monday, December 04, 2023

Kaʻū News Briefs December 4, 2023


The 5.1 magnitude quake with a long shake Monday evening was located northeast of Pahala along Hilina Pali at about
2,000 ft. elevation near Chain of Craters Road inside Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. USGS image

A 5.1 MAGNITUDE QUAKE SHOOK KAʻŪ AND VOLCANO on Monday evening at 5:53 p.m. It was followed by a magnitude 3.1 earthquake in the same area at 5:58 p.m. Both were at a depth of 1.9 km. The location was northeast of Pāhala along the Hilina Pala at about 2,000 ft. elevation near Chain of Craters Road on the slope of Kīlauea Volcano, inside Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Both quakes were about 8 miles from Volcano.
    Pacific Tsunami Warning Center reported no tsunami threat. County Civil Defense issued a statement saying, "As in all earthquakes, be aware of the possibility of after-shocks. If the earthquake was strongly felt in your area, precautionary checks should be made for any damages; especially structural and to utility connections of Gas, Water, and Electricity."

Trojan football team players received honors in islandwide rankings this week. Photo by Mark Peters
Dominic Nurial-Dacalio
is top in defense for Trojans.
Photo by Mark Peters

KAʻŪ TROJAN TEAM MEMBERS MADE IT INTO THE RANKINGS OF TOP HIGH SCHOOL FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON THE ISLAND. They were selected to First Team and Honorable Mention All-Conference for the BIIF. The list was released Monday by former Kaʻū High Athletic Director Kalei Namohana who is Big Island Interscholastic Football Coordinator.
    In Division II for Offense, Tyson TJ Kauhuia-Faafia was selected as First Team all-conference Wide Receiver. Honorable Mention all-conference for Kaʻū offensive players are for Adahdiyah "Diyah" Ellis-Reyes, Ocean Nihipali Sesson, Cyzeiah "Oli" Silva-Kamei, and Dominic Nurial-Dacalio.
Tyson TJ Kauhuia-Faafia is top offensive player for Trojans.
Photo by Mark Peters.
    In Division II for Defense, Dominic Nurial-Dacalio is recognized as First Team all-conference for his work as a Defensive Lineman. Honorable Mention all-conference for Kaʻū defensive players are for Adahdiyah "Diyah" Ellis-Reyes and Triton Blanco.
    BIIF Offensive Player of the Year is Alaka'i Aipia of HPA. The BIIF Defensive Players of the year are Ekela Livingston of HPA and Niau Paulos of Kamehameha. Coach of the Year for Division II is Kealoha Wengler of Kamehameha.
   Trojan coaching staff sent out a message of "Congratulations to our Trojan Football Team for this recognition."

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at kaucalendar.com, in the mail and on stands.

REGARDING THE MERGER OF HAWAIIAN AND ALASKA AIRLINES, Congressman Ed Case issued the following: “My earliest memories include flying with my dad on Hawaiian Airlines from Hilo to the Big City. So, like all of us it is difficult to accept that this truly kamaʻāina company, such a deep part of the lives of generations of residents and visitors, may not continue as an independent and uniquely Hawaiian enterprise.
    "But if this is going to and needs to happen to maintain Hawaiian’s contributions to our state, Alaska Airlines is a promising partner. Its undertakings to continue the Hawaiian brand, employ the over 7,000 Hawai‘i ‘ohana that have served us so well, and sustain reliable, affordable and competitive inter-island and Hawai’i-outside world service are very welcome.

    “What matters, though, is that there are full, binding and transparent commitments to back up those words. That must be our focus in the upcoming federal and state review and approval processes and community discussions of this major change in our Hawai‘i fabric.”

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at kaucalendar.com, in the mail and on stands.

DESIGNING EVICTION MEDIATION AS A TOOL FOR VIOLENCE REDUCTION is the subject of this month's Ku'ikahi Mediation Center's free talk on Dec. 21 as part of its Finding Solutions, Growing Peace Brown Bag Lunch Series.  Talks are Third Thursdays from  noon to 1 p.m. via Zoom.
    This month's speaker is Deanna Parrish, who said, "In a typical year, 3.6 million eviction cases are filed in the U.S. Since 2021, there have been over 80 deaths related to removing people from their homes. Eviction diversion programs could help diminish the possibility and stress of losing a home, reduce violent outcomes, and increase overall housing stability."
   The talk is designed to dive into dispute resolution solutions that can keep those involved in housing conflicts safe.
    Parrish serves as a Lecturer on Law at Harvard Law School, a Clinical Instructor at the Harvard Negotiation and Mediation Clinical Program, and the Assistant Director of the HNP Negotiation Teaching Network.  In these roles, she teaches and supervises graduate students in their coursework and clinical practice related to negotiation and dispute resolution.  She is a certified mediator and active member of the District of Columbia Bar.
    Ku'ikahi's Brown Bag Lunch Series is free and open to the public.  Attendees are encouraged to enjoy an informal and educational talk-story session and connect with others interested in Finding Solutions, Growing Peace.
    To get the Zoom link, register online at https://freebrownbagtalk.eventbrite.com. For more information, contact Ku'ikahi Mediation Center at (808) 935-7844 or info@hawaiimediation.org.  Or visit www.hawaiimediation.org.
    This lunch-and-learn series is made possible thanks in part to funding from the County of Hawai'i and Hawai'i Island United Way.

Tyson TJ Kauhuia-Faafia is topoffensive player for Trojans.
Photo by Mark Peters.

Sunday, December 03, 2023

Kaʻū News Briefs December 3, 2023

Santa arrives with park staff and Friends of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park CEO Elizabeth Fien to meet the keiki and give them presents at Holidays in Kahuku on Saturday.  Photo by Brenda Iokepa Moses

HOLIDAYS IN KAHUKU WELCOMED THE SUN on Saturday. More than 700 people, about 500 from on island, attended. The Friends of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park's event at the Kahuku Unit's fairgrounds and visitor center began after four days of solid rain that threatened to wash it out. Park Guide Wendy Scott-Vance said the Kahuku unit experienced a long drought and had just bought water for the first time in about 15 years. As soon as the water flowed into the tanks, the rains came and tanks overflowed.
The South Point Winds, with Peter Bosted on oboe, Lisa Wells
on bassoon, Sara Kamibayashi on French horn and Farley
 Sangels on trumpet, opens with classic Christmas music. 
Photo by Annie Bosted
    On Saturday, sunrise brought a "crystalline day," said Scott-Vance, with the sunshine lasting until Holidays in Kahuku was pau, the tents taken down and the place cleaned. Then the rains came again.
    She noted that the lower fairground fields were spared from a muddy situation by a new parking regime that used an old airstrip about a half mile up the hill. Friends of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park ran a shuttle most of the day. A road and hiking trail were available for those who wanted to walk it. She said the idea was to provide more parking while keeping handicapped parking next to the fairgrounds.
    For the non-profit Friends, which financially supports such park programs as Youth Rangers and Guardians of the Trails, this was its fourth Holidays in Kahuku. It ran from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. More than 20 arts and crafts stalls served the public for Christmas shopping. Food trucks and stalls provided nourishment.
The Kīpapa Sisters sing Here Comes Santa Claus, as he
comes in on a UTV. Photo by Brenda Iokepa Moses
    Holidays in Kahuku opened with emcee Makana Kamahele and musicians in The South Point Winds, "a really beautiful beginning, with classic Christmas music," said Scott-Vance. Other highlights included the Kīpapa Sisters singing Here Comes Santa Claus, Right Down Santa Claus Lane, as he arrived on the Friend's UTV with Friends CEO Elizabeth Fien to meet and greet the keiki and give them gifts.
   Also performing were Kumu Debbie Ryder and her Halau Hula O Leionalani, backed up by Demetrius Oliveira and Gene Beck, South Hawai'i Symphony, Jazz Gardeners and the funk ad roll band Hot Potaytahs.
   John Replogle was inspired by a classic keiki story for his telling of Little Lei Puahi and the Wild Pua'a. Joining him on stage was 99 year old Pauahi Pulham, introduced as Kaʻū 's own Little Lei Puahi.
Emcee Makana Kamahele. Photo by Brenda Iokepa Moses

        During Holidays in Kahuku, the Friends also introduced their new logo and logo wear, which can be purchased online at https://www.fhvnp.org/shop/

HAWAIIAN AIRLINES AND ALASKA AIRLINES WILL COMBINE, according to Hawaiian Airlines Newsroom, which lists benefits of the merger. It says the merger will create:
  Combined company to maintain Alaska Airlines' and Hawaiian Airlines' strong, high-quality brands, supported by a single, compelling loyalty offering.
   Expansion of fifth largest U.S. airline to a fleet of 365 narrow and wide body airplanes enabling guests to reach 138 destinations through a combined networks and more than 1,200 destinations through the oneworld Alliance.
   Enable Honolulu to become a key hub for the combined airline with expanded service for residents of Hawai‘i to the Continental U.S., creating new connections to Asia and throughout the Pacific for travelers across the U.S.
  A commitment to Hawai‘i that remains steadfast, including maintaining robust Neighbor Island air service, and a more competitive platform to support growth, job opportunities for employees, community investment and environmental stewardship.
Hawaiian Civic Club of Kaʻū served laulau and
other local food. Photo by Brenda Iokepa Moses
    A commitment to maintaining and growing union-represented workforce in Hawai‘i.
   A combination that will result in immediate value creation with sizable upside. All-cash transaction of $18 per share offers attractive premium for Hawaiian Airlines shareholders and is expected to be accretive to Alaska’s earnings within two years post-close with at least $235 million of expected run-rate synergies.
    Hawaiian and Alaska Airlines issued a joint statement saying:
The Jazz Gardeners playing at the fourth annual Holidays in Kahuku.
 Aaron Loesser is on  double bass, Gabriel Cuevas is on drums and
Farley Sangels plays piano and trumpet, often at the same time.
 Cheryl Cuevas was their vocalist for some numbers.
Photo by Annie Bosted
    Alaska Air Group, Inc. (NYSE: ALK), and Hawaiian Holdings, Inc. (NASDAQ: HA) today announced that they have entered into a definitive agreement under which Alaska Airlines will acquire Hawaiian Airlines for $18.00 per share in cash, for a transaction value of approximately $1.9 billion, inclusive of $0.9 billion of Hawaiian Airlines net debt.
     The combined company will unlock more destinations for consumers and expand choice of critical air service options and access throughout the Pacific region, Continental United States and globally. The transaction is expected to enable a stronger platform for growth and competition in the U.S., as well as long-term job opportunities for employees, continued investment in local communities and environmental stewardship.
A beaming Lisa Wells concludes shopping from Karen Newton
 and Laura Griffith who sold many hand-crafted rope baskets,
 coasters, jeans purses and fabric gift bags. Photo by Annie Bosted
    As airlines rooted in the 49th and 50th U.S. states, which are uniquely reliant upon air travel, Alaska Airlines and Hawaiian Airlines share a deep commitment to caring for their employees, guests and communities. This combination will build on the 90+ year legacies and cultures of these two service-oriented airlines, preserve both beloved brands on a single operating platform, and protect and grow union-represented jobs and economic development opportunities in Hawai‘i, with a combined network that will provide more options and added international connectivity for travelers through airline partners including, the oneworld Alliance.
Teresa Davis of Ocean View shows her creations – hand-made doggy
 Christmas bandanas. She and her husband, Allyn, sell a wide
 variety of sewn and painted crafts under the label, 'Ohi'a Creation. 
Photo by Annie Bosted

   “This combination is an exciting next step in our collective journey to provide a better travel experience for our guests and expand options for West Coast and Hawai‘i travelers,” said Ben Minicucci, Alaska Airlines CEO. “We have a longstanding and deep respect for Hawaiian Airlines, for their role as a top employer in Hawai‘i, and for how their brand and people carry the warm culture of aloha around the globe. Our two airlines are powered by incredible employees, with 90+ year legacies and values grounded in caring for the special places and people that we serve. I am grateful to the more than 23,000 Alaska Airlines employees who are proud to have served Hawai‘i for over 16 years, and we are fully committed to investing in the communities of Hawai‘i and maintaining robust Neighbor Island service that Hawaiian Airlines travelers have come to expect. We look forward to deepening this stewardship as our airlines come together, while providing unmatched value to customers, employees, communities and owners.”
      Peter Ingram, Hawaiian Airlines President and CEO said that “Since 1929, Hawaiian Airlines has been an integral part of life in Hawai‘i, and together with Alaska Airlines we will be able to deliver more for our guests, employees and the communities that we serve.      “In Alaska Airlines, we are joining an airline that has long served Hawai‘i, and has a complementary network and a shared culture of service. With the additional scale and resources that this transaction with Alaska Airlines brings, we will be able to accelerate investments in our guest experience and technology, while maintaining the Hawaiian Airlines brand. We are also pleased to deliver significant, immediate and compelling value to our shareholders through this all-cash transaction. Together, Hawaiian Airlines and Alaska Airlines can bring our authentic brands of hospitality to more of the world while continuing to serve our valued local communities.”


 Members of Halau Hula O Leionalai sing at Holidays at Kahuku on Saturday. Photo by Brenda Iokepa Moses

Halau Hula O Leonalani dances for Holidays in Kahuku. Photo by Annie Bosted

The Knitwits provided hand-knitted hats, bags, scarves, sweaters,
 wraps and soft toys. Knitwit member Robin Stratton, on left,
 shows a crocheted garment to customer Michelle Mueller. Proceeds
  go to the Food Basket. Knitwits is a group of volunteers who meet
 weekly in Ocean View to knit and socialize. Photo by Annie Bosted
      The joint statement from the airlines also
promised more community and employee benefits:
   "As one of Hawai‘i’s largest employers, Hawaiian Airlines has a long legacy of commitment to its employees, who shaped the company over its 94-year history, and to local communities, culture, and the natural environment. As an integrated company, Alaska Airlines and Hawaiian Airlines will continue this stewardship and maintain a strong presence and investment in Hawai‘i." 
    The statement says the combined company will drive:
John Replogle entertained fair goers with his telling of Little Lei Puahi
and the Wild Pua'a, a Hawaiian interpretation of Little Red Riding Hood.
Photo by Annie Bosted
    Growth in union-represented jobs - Maintain and grow union-represented jobs in Hawai‘i, including preserving pilot, flight attendant, and maintenance bases in Honolulu and airport operations and cargo throughout the state.
   Strong operational presence - Maintain a strong operations presence with local leadership and a regional headquarters in Hawai‘i to support the combined airlines’ network.
   Opportunities for employees - Provide more opportunities for career advancement, competitive pay and benefits, and geographic mobility for employees.
    Expansion of workforce development initiatives - Continue and expand access to workforce development initiatives, including Hawaiian Airlines' partnership with the Honolulu Community College Aeronautics Maintenance Technology Program and Alaska Airlines' Ascend Pilot Academy among others, to support future jobs and career opportunities in Hawai‘i and beyond.
    Investment in local communities - Continue to invest in Hawai‘i communities, combining and expanding the two airlines’ commitments, and work with local communities and government to build a vibrant future for Hawai‘i.
   Perpetuation of culture - Committed to promoting regenerative tourism in the Hawaiian Islands and investing in Hawaiian language and culture, continuing and building upon Hawaiian Airlines' existing programs.
Wilbur Won attends an impressive display of
hand-crafted jewelry, glass etchings and sculptures
 created by Ocean View artists Candice
and Rodney Crusat. Photo by Annie Bosted

    The statement also promises that both airlines will become "more sustainable." It says:

    "Alaska Airlines is committed to building upon both Alaska Airlines' and Hawaiian Airlines' strong commitments to environmental stewardship, including Alaska Airlines' five-part path to net zero by 2040 and sustainability goals in areas of carbon emissions and fuel efficiency, waste, and healthy ecosystems. In 2022, Alaska Airlines made its largest Boeing fleet order in its 90-year history, focused on the Boeing 737-MAX aircraft, which are 25% more fuel-efficient on a seat-by-seat basis than the aircraft they replace, and continued to expand use of route optimization software to help dispatchers develop routes that save fuel, time, and emissions.
    "Both airlines are actively working to advance the market for sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) in their respective geographies. These climate-focused efforts will continue, including continued investment in local sourcing."

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at kaucalendar.com, in the mail and on stands.

Alaska Airlines waits for permission.
Hawaiian Airlines plans to marry Alaska Airlines.

Saturday, December 02, 2023

Kaʻū News Briefs December 2, 2023

The Houvener house at Lehua and Palm in Ocean View is lit up every night with a humongous display and 
Santa will hand out gifts on Dec. 24. Photo from the Houveners

CONTINUING TO BUILD A VAST CHRISTMAS WONDERLAND IN OCEAN VIEW for almost two decades, Kaida Houvener and family keep the lights on the displays night after night at the corner of Lehua and Palm. This is the 19th year for the display and the third with gift giving from Santa.
    Michelle Houvenir created new cutouts, including a pepa pig with her family. Added onto the display are new blowups, including a 12 ft. tall nutcracker, Winnie the Pooh, a tiger and Eeyore. 
    Sierrarose Houvener crafted a Dallas Cowboys cut out. There is a now rocket blowup and a number of smaller Christmas items that regulars will noice. There is a little Elf on the Shelf for kids to find each year.    
     Houvener’s daytime work is managing South Point U-Cart, and he saves all year to buy gifts for the children and materials to make new displays. On Dec. 24, Christmas Eve, Houvener and his family will offer gifts from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. 

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at kaucalendar.com, in the mail and on stands.

Trojans beat CLA. Photo by C. Kai
KAʻŪ TROJANS GIRLS BASKETBALL TEAM WAS VICTORIOUS at home on Saturday afternoon against Christian Liberty Academy.
    The final score was 43-13, with the Trojans led by their team captains Tyra Wong Yuen with 19 points and Shaylie Martinez with 15 points. Additional scoring came from Alexus Bivings who drained two 3 pointers in the 4th quarter for a total of 6 points, and strong minutes off the bench from Caliyah Silva Kamei who added 3 points. The Lady Trojans played strong defense throughout the game and backed it up with a great effort in gathering rebounds.
The win improved their record to 1-2 for the season. They previously lost to a strong Parker team to open the season.
    This past Monday, the Lady Trojans lost a heartbreaker to the D1 Keaau team 27-25. Head coach Mark Peters states, “I am so proud of this team who has improved each game. After each game as a team, we identify areas we need to improve and practice on those items. The team works hard and has focused on these areas during the following game showing strong improvement.”
    Coach continued, “Without having a JV team this year, we are mixing in our younger and developing players who are gaining great experience and are performing well.”
The Trojan team will have a busy week ahead with a game at KS-Hawai'i on Thursday, Dec. 7, followed by a home game next Saturday, Dec. 9 against Waiakea at 2 p.m.
    See more on the three-game Saturday night of basketball for the Trojans boys and girls at the Herkes Kaʻū District Gym in upcoming Kaū News Briefs, with more photos from C. Kai, a Kaʻū High journalism student  C. Kai.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at kaucalendar.com, in the mail and on stands.

May 22nd, 1924 explosion as seen from Volcano House. From 1823 to 1924, there was almost continuous eruptive activity within Halemaʻumaʻu crater. During this period, there were 15 eruptions and 11 subsidence events at the summit. NPS Photo by Tai Sing Loo
PAST AND POTENTIAL EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS on this island are the focus of this week's Volcano Watch, the weekly article and update by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists and affiliates:
    Twenty-five years ago, the frequently explosive activity of Kīlauea was unappreciated. Since then, continuing research has emphasized Kīlauea’s past, and potential future, explosive eruptions.
    Many such explosions resulted from the interaction of magma with groundwater or surface water; others apparently were powered by pressurized gas possibly aided by steam but with no direct involvement of magma.
    Lava fountains that accompany eruption of lava flows are technically explosive but are less powerful. They rarely eject particles of lava more than a few hundred meters above the vent, whereas the more powerful explosions send volcanic ash several kilometers into the air.
    The powerful explosive eruptions were particularly frequent at Kīlauea during two long periods of time, from about 200 BCE (Before Common Era) to 1000 CE (Common Era) and about 1500 CE to the early 1800s.
    Most past explosive eruptions took place when a deep 
USGS Image of an explosive volcano.
caldera indented the summit of Kīlauea. This is where the explosive deposits are thickest and societal impacts the greatest. This is apparent when driving between Kīlauea Military Camp and Uēkahuna bluff in Hawai´i Volcanoes National Park. Few outcrops of lava flows occur along the way, because the flows are covered by tephra deposits from explosive eruptions between 1500 and 1790 CE. And, several hundred people were killed nearby during the infamous explosive eruption in 1790. The prospect of future explosions is understandably and rightfully worrying.
    But explosive eruptions are not bad everywhere. Hawaiian society southeast of Kīlauea’s summit actually benefited from some of them. These benefits result from the deposits of fine volcanic ash that transformed a barren sea of pāhoehoe into an area capable of sustaining agriculture.
    One example is in Kīpukakahāliʻi, along the Chain of Craters Road south of Maunaulu. About a thousand feet (a few hundred meters) east of the vehicle pullout is a grove of more than 20 kī plants, some 7-10 feet (2-3 meters) tall. The kī grow on a flat and adjoining hill that together form a kīpuka covered with deposits of volcanic ash 10-12 inches (25-30 centimeters) thick from several explosive eruptions between about 600 and 900 CE. The top of the deposit formed the ground surface for hundreds of years and developed a soil in which the ki thrives.
    Sugar cane grew there, too. Rev. William Ellis describes his guide supplying him with refreshing cane from the kīpuka during his epic walk from the summit of Kīlauea to Kealakomo on August 2, 1823. The accompanying map shows the locations and times along his journey, interpreted from his published journal.
    The village of Kealakomo, near the coast south of Kīpukakahāliʻi, likewise benefited by its location astride two kīpuka containing volcanic ash deposits of the same age as those in Kīpukakahaliʻi. The deposits are thinner than those in Kīpukakahāliʻi, because they are farther downwind from the caldera, but 
Map showing the path that Rev. William Ellis took walking from the summit of Kīlauea to Kealakomo on Aug. 2, 1823.
Map from USGS
they nonetheless provided a suitable substrate for the growth of sweet potatoes and possibly other vegetables. The village probably depended on these crops to augment its seafood diet.
    Perhaps the village itself existed, at least in part, because of the volcanic ash in upland Kīpukakahāliʻi and the lowland kīpuka.
    Where the Chain of Craters Road parallels the coast, imagine how you could make a living there in this challenging landscape of lava flows. These flows are younger than the volcanic ash deposits at Kealakomo. Yet archaeological and historical studies show that people lived there in the 19th century. How could they do it?
    It turns out that the lava flows are not quite as barren as they seem at first glance. Pockets of volcanic ash occupy depressions between many of the pāhoehoe toes. This ash fell during eruptions mainly in about 1650 and 1790 CE. Just after these eruptions, thin volcanic ash blanketed all the flows but was soon
washed by rain into depressions, where it accumulated to form a meager, but suitable, soil for sweet potatoes and other crops. In this way seafood could be supplemented by locally grown produce, just enough to eke out an existence in this demanding environment. Location, location, location. This realtor’s mantra applies equally to the effects of explosive eruptions at Kīlauea. At the summit, not so good. In the distance, not so bad.
    Volcano Activity Updates: Kīlauea is not erupting. Its USGS Volcano Alert level is ADVISORY.

    The unrest associated with the intrusion that began in early October southwest of Kīlauea's summit continues. Low levels of earthquake activity have continued in the Southwest Rift Zone, summit, and upper East Rift Zone over the last week and a small swarm of earthquakes occurred the morning of December 1 south of the caldera. Unrest may continue to wax and wane with changes to the input of magma into the area and eruptive activity could occur in the near future with little or no warning. The most recent sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rate for the summit—approximately 100 tonnes per day—was measured on Nov. 17.
    Mauna Loa is not erupting. Its USGS Volcano Alert Level is at NORMAL.
    Webcams show no signs of activity on Mauna Loa. Summit seismicity increased slightly at the beginning of November but returned to low levels in the weeks since then. Ground deformation indicates continuing slow inflation as magma replenishes the reservoir system following the 2022 eruption. SO2 emission rates are at background levels.
    Two earthquakes were reported felt in the Hawaiian Islands during the week preceding last Thursday: a M3.2 earthquake 5 km (3 mi) S of Volcano at 1 km (1 mi) depth on Nov. 26 at 2:24 a.m. HST and a M3.9 earthquake 64 km (39 mi) SSW of Mākena at 0 km (0 mi) depth on Nov. 23 at 10:17 p.m. HST.
    HVO continues to closely monitor Kīlauea and Mauna Loa.
    Please visit HVO’s website for past Volcano Watch articles, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa updates, volcano photos, maps, recent earthquake information, and more. Email questions to askHVO@usgs.gov.

5,000 in the mail, 2,500 on the street.

Directed by Kaʻū's own Farley Sangels and four other
musicians from Kaʻū.