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Thursday, May 16, 2024

Kaʻū News Briefs May 16, 2024

Hawai'i Rise Foundation team offers scholarships for high school seniors on this island.

MORE THAN $25K IN SCHOLARSHIPS IS OFFERED THROUGH HAWAI'I RISE FOUNDATION to Big Island students. This week, Hawaiʻi Rise Foundation. a group of young entrepreneurs and community leaders, along with their community partners, announced the opening for their 2024 Scholarship application program with a deadline set for June 15. 
Breanni Kobayashi, Executive Director
of Hawai'i Rise Foundation
     Executive Director Breeani Kobayashi, who is also a candidate for Hawai'i Mayor, explained the founding of Hawa'i Rise: "My mom and I opened the Keaukaha General Store in Hilo, Hawai'i, in 2013. One day, I caught a young boy stealing in the store. Rather than calling the police, I asked him why he was stealing, why he didn’t get a job, or find volunteer opportunities. His response was simple–he didn’t know-how.
    "He had no idea how to get a job, how to write a resume, or where to go for opportunities. At that moment, I felt it was essential to help our youth develop their potential. I started the Hawai'i Rise Foundation and began a free community education series for teens in January 2016. Our first-class was on resume building.” The organization also established the scholarship program, the first scholarship coming from the Keaukaha Store.
     Since then, scholarships have grown. Sponsors have inspired others to create scholarships of their own. This year varying scholarship amounts will be distributed to graduating high school seniors.
    Applicants answer essay questions. Some questions encourage a look into their past to share their growth through adversity. Others prompt a look at issues in their communities and ideas for giving back to improve the place. Some scholarships target specific majors like Nursing, Political Science and Hawaiian Studies. Each scholarship is uniquely created by the scholarship sponsor. 
     Following the June 15 deadline, awardees will be notified in July. A formal scholarship ceremony will be held at Hilo Yacht Club for scholarship winners. Scholarships and their sponsors are:
    Rachel’s Gift, sponsored by the 'ohana of Rachel Leilani Gangwes;
    Aloha Will Save The World Scholarship, sponsored by Bronson Kobayashi and Alaina Villatora;                Charles & Dorothy DeSilva Scholarship, sponsored by Lisa Robbins;
    Danny K. Paleka Memorial Political Science Scholarship, sponsored by Susan Paleka;
    Hawai’i Development Group Scholarship, sponsored by Lailan Bento;
    He Manu I Ka Lewa Lani Scholarship, sponsored by Manuheali’i;
    Hill-Estabilio Scholarship, sponsored by Rinna and Mikey Hill;
    Hilo Yacht Club Scholarship, sponsored by the Hilo Yacht Club;
    Ho’opuakea Scholarship, sponsored by Napua and Kealani Canda;
    Holomua Scholarship, sponsored by Keaukaha General Store;
    Kim and Kids Scholarship, sponsored by Breeani, Bronson and Brock Kobayashi;
    Na'au Ho’omaika’i Scholarship, sponsored by Ka'iulani Hedlund;
    Pumehana Scholarship, sponsored by Brock and Shoshanna Kobayashi;  
    Kiana Vallente, Community & Events Coordinator with Hawai'i Rise Foundation, said, "We are a small nonprofit organization. Our mission is to create opportunities for vulnerable, or moderate and low-income families, children, and elderly by providing educational services, programs, and support."
    See more on Hawai'i Rise Foundation at https://hawaiirisefoundation.com/. To apply for a scholarship, see: https://linktr.ee/hawaiirisefoundation. See Kobayashi's website for her mayoral candidacy at https://www.breeformayor.com/.

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DIGGING DEEPER, EXAMINING ASH is the subject of this week's Volcano Watch  written by USGS Hawaiian Volcanoes Observatory geologist Kendra J. Lynn and University of Hawai'i student Reed Mershon. Last week’s Volcano Watch summarized Kīlauea’s explosive eruptions of 1924 and their impacts on communities. This week the focus is on new discoveries made by examining ash deposited during these events. Read last week's "Volcano Watch" article—The blast of the century at Kīlauea.  Here is this week's
    A few years ago, USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) geologists began studying the 1924 explosive deposits by conducting detailed field and laboratory studies. Around Halema‘uma‘u, we sampled and described these ash layers which had lain largely undisturbed over the past 100 years.
   During the 1924 eruption, ash fell as far away as Pāhala; today, it is only preserved within about 2 miles (3 km) of Halema‘uma‘u. It is thickest in the downwind direction (to the southwest), ranging from about 3 feet (1 m) to several inches (a few centimeters) thick. Blocks were also ejected during the eruption and weigh up to 8 tons (8,000 kg).
USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory geologist examines layers 
                of ash deposited during Kīlauea’s 1924 explosions south of 
the summit caldera. USGS Photo by J. Chang
    In the lab, we studied the samples of ash. We examined 200 grains ranging 0.2–0.4 inches (0.5–1.0 mm) in size; each grain was classified according to its rock or mineral type. Typical components include older, “recycled” lavas (called lithic material) and fresh magma (called juvenile material).
    Most of the 1924 ash layers we’ve studied have 95% or more lithic (recycled) material. This finding supports the classic interpretation that the 1924 eruptions were driven by water-rock interactions (called phreatic explosions). A surprising recent discovery was that many of the youngest layers in the 1924 deposits (from the later explosions) have up to 30% juvenile material, or fresh magma! This finding is not consistent with the classic interpretation of steam driven explosions.
    To learn more about the magma involved in the 1924 explosions, HVO scientists have been collaborating with colleagues at the University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa. We have used a range of analytical techniques to study the compositions and textures of the 1924 juvenile material.
    There are a few separate ash groups, distinct both in their chemistry and their textures. To distinguish the different ash groups based on chemistry, geochemists use the magnesium oxide (MgO) content: the amount of MgO decreases as the magma cools, so we can use it as an analogue for temperature. Almost like a chemical fingerprint of the history of the magma!
    Most of the 1924 grains we looked at have MgO contents within the normal range we expect for lava erupted from Halema‘uma‘u. However, we’ve also observed two rarer groups of 1924 grains with higher amounts of MgO, likely from a hotter source material. This suggests that fresh batches of magma could have entered the magmatic system of Kīlauea during the 1924 explosions.
    The different chemical groups of 1924 grains also have distinct textures, which we can see using a scanning electron microscope. The lower-MgO group have lots of tiny crystals and very few vesicles (gas bubbles) in them. The middle-MgO group has few crystals and many vesicles that are ovals or other shapes indicating that the once round bubbles were squished. The high-MgO group has no small crystals and have circular vesicles.
    These chemical and textural differences in the 1924 deposits show that three magma types can be distinguished in the 1924 explosions. From this, we can infer that at least three different magmas were interacting underneath Halema‘uma‘u prior to and/or during the 1924 explosive eruptions, and perhaps the mixing of these magmas could help explain why the eruptions were so explosive.
Olivine crystals help tell the story of eruptions. USGS photo
 We also found olivine crystals, the very common green mineral you find in Hawaiian rocks, in the juvenile component of the 1924 eruptions. The olivine chemistry and textures vary widely, indicating multiple groups of minerals with different histories prior to eruption. Many of the olivine crystals are zoned, with different chemistry in their centers compared to their rims, indicating that magmas were mixing just prior to eruption. There is much more to be learned by studying the olivine crystals, and HVO scientists are hard at work probing their secrets.
   One hundred years have passed since the 1924 explosive eruptions at Kīlauea. However, we have only begun to scratch the surface on what we can learn from the deposits of these explosions. How did the magmas interact with each other? How long did they sit waiting in magma reservoirs, and what happened to cause the explosions? We hope to answer these questions with our continued research.
    On Monday, May 20 at 7 p.m., and Tuesday, May 21 at 3 p.m., join Don Swanson, HVO geologist emeritus, and Ben Gaddis, HVO volunteer, as they describe the 1924 explosive eruption of Kīlauea in presentations at the Lyman Museum in Hilo. Admission to Lyman Museum programs is free to Museum members, and $3.00 for nonmembers. See here for more information: https://lymanmuseum.org/events/.
   A newly available video provides audio of Thomas Jaggar describing the 1924 explosive eruption of Kīlauea, with historical photos: 100 years ago at Kīlauea: The 1924 explosive eruption described by Thomas Jaggar.

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    Kīlauea is not erupting. Its USGS Volcano Alert level is ADVISORY. Unrest that began on April 27 continues beneath the upper East Rift Zone and the summit caldera south of Halemaʻumaʻu. Over the past week, activity decreased slightly compared to the previous week. Less than 200 events were detected per day, most magnitude-2 and smaller; depths remain concentrated between 2-4 km (1.2-3.1 miles) beneath the surface. Tiltmeters near Sand Hill and Uēkahuna bluff continued to record inflationary trends. Kīlauea's summit region is pressurized, and changes could occur quickly moving forward. See the Information Statement published on May 2 for background information: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/hans-public/notice/DOI-USGS-HVO-2024-05-03T07:42:02+00:00.
    Mauna Loa is not erupting. Its USGS Volcano Alert Level is at NORMAL. Webcams show no signs of activity on Mauna Loa. Summit seismicity has remained at low levels over the past month. Ground deformation indicates continuing slow inflation as magma replenishes the reservoir system following the 2022 eruption. SO2 emission rates are at background levels.
    Four earthquakes were reported felt in the Hawaiian Islands during the past week: a M3.8 earthquake 5 km (3 mi) SSW of Pāhala at 33 km (20 mi) depth on May 16 at 3:25 a.m. HST, a M3.4 earthquake 14 km (8 mi) E of Pāhala at 27 km (17 mi) depth on May 14 at 6:39 p.m. HST, a M1.8 earthquake 1 km (0 mi) N of Pāhala at 29 km (18 mi) depth on May 11 at 8:11 p.m. HST, and a M3.5 earthquake 22 km (13 mi) S of Wai‘ōhinu at 7 km (4 mi) depth on May 11 at 7:59 p.m. HST.
    Email questions to askHVO@usgs.gov.

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ALOHA FRIDAYS AT VAC GALLERY: 'UKULELE WITH WES AWANA on Friday May 17 from 11 a.m. - 1 p.m. on porch of Volcano Art Center Gallery in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Wes Awana offers family-friendly lessons on the iconic and inviting 'ukulele. Free cultural events are part of VAC's Cultural Connections Initiative supported by in part by Hawai'i State GIA Wai Wai Programs. Park fees apply.

MĀLAMA NĀ KEIKI FESTIVAL is Saturday May 18 from 10 a.m. - 2 p.m. at Pāhala Community Center, 96 Kamani Street, Pāhala. Event includes keiki activities, prizes and food. Keiki (0-13 years old) must be accompanied by an adult. Registration required, call (808) 769-3792. First come, first serve. Hosted by Hui Mālama Ola Nā ʻŌiwi.

NANI O KAHUKU: A LIVING HISTORY PLAY is Saturday May 18 from 11 a.m. - 12 p.m. at Kahuku Unit of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. The entrance is located just south of the 70.5 mile marker on the ma uka (mountain side) of Highway 11. Nani O Kahuku is a one-woman living history play adapted by Jackie Pualani Johnson from the diary of Hannah Piʻilani Jones (Nani). Nani (portrayed by Alya-Joy Kanehailua) was the eleventh and youngest child of Kahuku Ranch owner from 1871-1887, George W.C. Jones. Free.

EMPTINESS AND FORM: AN INVITATIONAL EXHIBITION OF VISUAL ART is open from May 18 – June 7th on Wednesdays – Sundays, 10 a.m. – 4 p.m. at Volcano Arts Center Niaulani Campus in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. The exhibit accompanies the 17th annual meeting of the Comparative and Continental Philosophy Circle (CCPC), a conference hosted by the Humanities Division at the University of Hawai'i–Hilo. The exhibition features invited artists from both the US mainland and Hawaiʻi Island sharing artistic explorations of the theme Emptiness and Form. Artists' reception on Saturday, May 18th, from 2 p.m. - 4 p.m. Closing reception with both artists and philosophers present will occur on Friday, June 7th from 6 p.m. - 9 p.m.