About The Kaʻū Calendar

Ka`u, Hawai`i, United States
A locally owned and run community newspaper (www.kaucalendar.com) distributed in print to all Ka`u District residents of Ocean View, Na`alehu, Pahala, Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, Volcano Village and Miloli`i on the Big Island of Hawai`i. This blog is where you can catch up on what's happening daily with our news briefs. This blog is provided by The Ka`u Calendar Newspaper (kaucalendar.com), Pahala Plantation Cottages (pahalaplantationcottages.com), Local Productions, Inc. and the Edmund C. Olson Trust.

Saturday, April 06, 2019

Kaʻū News Briefs, Saturday, April 6, 2019

Only small amounts of SO2 and H2S are being released from Kīlauea, but they chemically react with each other in 
an oxidation-reduction reaction to form the bright yellow sulfur deposits visible on the crater walls within 
Halema‘uma‘u. The current low sulfur emission rates at Kīlauea have contributed to beautifully clear skies 
in downwind areas. See Volcano Watch, below. USGS photo by M. Poland, March 22, 2019
GETTING RID OF THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE is a goal of Sen. Brian Schatz who is asking constituents to sign a petition. Said Schatz, "Presidential elections should be simple. Every eligible American should be able to vote, those votes should be counted, and the candidate who receives the most votes should win the White House.
     "Unfortunately, this isn't the way it works. The electoral college is an outdated institution that gives some states more influence than others. It allowed two of the last three presidents to win an election despite losing the popular vote - including Donald Trump.
     "That's why I introduced a plan to end the electoral college, so that the candidate supported by the most Americans actually wins. Add your name if you support my plan."

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Waterways left over from sugar plantation days
provide irrigation to Kaʻū agriculture.
  Photo from Olson Trust
AN ATTEMPT TO SEPARATE KAʻŪ RANCHERS AND FARMERS from large landowners, in a battle over state water, failed this week. The possible solution for local agricultural entities, initiated by Sen. Kai Kahele, passed the Senate Water & Land Committee and was two steps away from the governor's desk, when Senate Ways & Means Committee chair Donovan Dela Cruz refused to hear the bill.
     House Bill 1326 SD1 would haven pulled Kaʻū out of the mix through exempting ranchers and farmers, who use less than two million gallons a day, from legislation to regulate large landowners diverting water from streams. Kaʻū farmers and ranchers note that their water comes from horizontal wells drilled into the ground rather than streams diverted from one ahupua`a to another.
     Without Kahele's amendment, Kaʻū farmers and ranchers are faced with an end-of-year deadline that requires them to convert from state water permits to long-term state leases. Kaʻū farmers and ranchers said this could mean paying for environmental assessments for their water usage, even with the possibility that permits would go out to public auction once the EA's are completed.
     The water fight could also interfere with hydroelectric operations on this island, with one being developed in Kaʻū by Olson Trust. 
     Kahele's amendment received praise from environmental and Native Hawaiian entities, that submitted testimony urging the state to manage water in a more accountable and transparent way, consistent with the public trust for water as a public resource.
     Those groups opposed Alexander & Baldwin's sale of agricultural water rights along with large tracts of property on Maui, following judges ordering A&B to put the water back into the streams.
     See April 4 and April 1 Kaʻū News Briefs for more.

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DAMIEN KAIMANA BARCARSE is appointed by Gov. David Ige to represent Hawai‘i County on the statewide Board of Education. Barcarse has worked at Kamehameha Schools since 2013, most recently as the West Hawai‘i regional director. Previously, Barcarse served as the director of the Hawaiian Cultural Based Education Department, as well as interim director/senior project manager and coordinator at the ʻĀina Based Education Department at Kamehameha Schools.
Kaimana Barcarse awaits state Senate confirmation to become a member
of the state Board of Education. He works for Kamehameha Schools as
West Hawaiʻi regional director. Photo from Cultural Survival Quarterly
     Barcarse is an educator who teaches the connection between language, culture, and environment. In a June, 2017, article in Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, based in Cambridge, Massachusetts,  he said, "There's definitely a connection between the environment and our language. Hawaiians believe that we are a part of the earth and the ecosystem, and we have that connection to the earth. In many ways our deities are all connected to the earth. We have deities that are connected to the mountains, to the trees, to the oceans, to the sky. We communicate with these deities, and we do it of course through our Indigenous language.
     "We have hundreds of names for rain and just as many names for the winds, and knowing the names of the winds and the rains can tell you where you are, what island you're on. It can tell you what season you're in, what kinds of events are happening. It can also help you predict what kind of events are going to happen. If we're in the uplands of Waiakea and we feel the Uluau winds, we know the trade winds are light, and we know this is a land-associated breeze that brings with it a certain feel and certain fragrance. If we feel the Mālualuaki‘iwai winds, it's a cool, stiff wind, we know that rain is going to follow shortly after because Mālualuaki‘iwai means to gather and bring the rains over. Our language is closely tied to what we observe and what we see out in nature. So in that way we can understand; we can frame the climate and frame the environment through our language, and our language describes the environment.
     "Looking through our oral histories and our written histories to understand what the seasons and the cycles are can give us data over time. That is fully scientific data that is historic, observed over hundreds of years. And when we understand how that cycle changes and compare it to how that cycle changes now, you can see the pattern of climate change—as things start to warm up, as certain areas start to have the sea level rise... We listen to our songs of a certain area, it talks about the līpoa, it's a type of seaweed, and the ‘alamihi, crabs. You go there today, you won't see alamihi. You won't smell the līpoa like you used to. That tells us that that the environment has changed. By knowing your language, by knowing your history, by understanding how descriptive and how intimate our language is with the environment, you can understand the nuances, whether they be really subtle or really obvious. You can understand the changes, and by that you can understand your relationship to the environment."
     Prior to joining Kamehameha Schools, Barcarse was a staff member and lecturer of ethno-zoology and voyaging and navigation at the University of Hawai‘i at Hilo's Hawaiian Studies Division. He is also a DJ and program producer for KWXX-FM. Barcarse's three-year term would begin July 1. He replaces Patricia Bergin.
     Ige has also re-appointed Kenneth Uemura to the City and County of Honolulu seat and Bruce Voss to the at-large seat on the BOE. Both Uemura and Voss also begin their three-year terms on July 1, 2019. All three appointees are subject to Senate confirmation.

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A CHANGE IN SENATE RULES TO ALLOW CUTTING OFF DEBATE after two hours during confirmation of  judicial nominees has drawn opposition from Sen. Mazie Hirono.
Sen. Mazie Hirono.
Photo from Hirono's Twitter
     Said Hirono, "In an effort to rush their right-wing judicial nominees to the bench, Republicans went 'nuclear' and changed the Senate rules. Normally, the president's nominees face up to 30 hours of debate in the Senate so that we can do our due diligence in making sure they are fit for the position to which they were nominated. This is part of the Senate's constitutionally mandated advice and consent role.
     "But Mitch McConnell and Republicans have successfully reduced 30 hours of debate to two hours so they can quickly send more of Trump's ultra-conservative hand-picked nominees to the district courts. That's right, only two hours.
     "The GOP will stop at nothing to pack the courts with young, conservative ideologues who will make critical decisions on issues like healthcare, LGBTQ protections, gun safety reform, women's choice, and so much more -- and once approved, these judges have lifetime appointments, meaning many will be there for decades after Trump and even McConnell are out of office.
     "We need to send a strong message to McConnell, Trump, and the GOP: we've had enough of their partisan court packing."

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VOLCANIC POLLUTION is the subject of this week's Volcano Watch, written by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists and affiliates. The column is entitled Eruption pause provides an opportunity to probe volcanic pollution:
     The end of Kīlauea's 2018 eruption this past September was accompanied by an enormous decrease in the amount of sulfur dioxide gas (SO2) emitted from the volcano. This has led to beautifully clear skies gracing the Island of Hawai‘i, particularly noticeable on the west side, where the volcanic pollution known as vog chronically collected in past years.
Telephoto zoom of the largest sulfur deposit forming on the 
northeast talus wall in Halema‘uma‘u. The view is from 
USGS HVO's K3cam. Image from volcanoes.usgs.gov
     During the peak of the 2018 lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption, when the volcanic emissions and vog were both much stronger, a team of academic researchers worked with the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and the Hawaiʻi State Department of Health to study the intense volcanic air pollution events generated by the eruption.
     The researchers, U.K. scientists from the Universities of Leeds, Cambridge and Oxford, sampled volcanic particles and gases at the LERZ fissure 8 vent, the ocean entry, and various sites downwind: Leilani Estates, Orchidland Estates, Volcano, Pāhala, Ocean View, and Captain Cook. To determine the nature and composition of the volcanic pollution, samples were collected by pumping air through filters, from the ground and from the air using drones.
     The tiny particles captured on the filters were then analyzed in the laboratory for chemical composition and imaged using a powerful Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the composition of individual particles. Other instruments determined the number or weight of particles of various sizes, which are associated with different health impacts in studies of human-caused pollution. The samples were analyzed for pH (acidity); major components, including sulfate, fluoride, and chloride; and trace metals, such as lead and arsenic.
     These analyses targeted chemical species that we know are present in volcanic plumes. Kīlauea's plume is composed primarily of water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and entrained air, along with smaller amounts of other gases, including hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride. SO2 reacts in the atmosphere over time to form tiny acidic and neutral sulfate particles, which are a major component of volcanic pollution in Hawaiʻi. Small amounts of toxic metals have also been found in the volcanic gas plumes emitted from Kīlauea's vents – see vog.ivhhn.org/vog-fact-sheets.
     The summer 2018 gas and particle sampling campaign was the first effort to look at how trace elements, such as metals, change over distance in the Kīlauea plume. It was found that the amount of these elements was highly variable but was not solely predicted by the distance of the plume from the vent. Most of the particles – 99 percent – were less than 2.5 micron in diameter—small enough to penetrate deep into the lungs.
     The study's findings also support previous observations regarding the chemical conversion of SO2 gas to particles. Areas far from the gas source, such as along Hawaiʻi Island's Kona coast, had high particle concentrations since much of the SO2 gas had converted to particles as it travelled downwind. Ambient air quality standards for both SO2 gas and particles were exceeded at various locations on the island during the three months of the LERZ eruption,  health.hawaii.gov/cab/files/2018/08/exceedances_2018_08_01_04.pdf.
Vog safety tips were important last year, when air quality was
impacted by gasses and ash from the eruption. USGS poster
     In contrast to last summer, Kῑlauea's current lull in activity provides an excellent opportunity to study background air quality. This can help us distinguish between anthropogenic pollution, such as traffic exhaust, and volcanic pollution. While controlling emissions from a volcano is not a practical proposition, understanding the contribution of human-made pollution, which can be controlled, is important on an island with a growing population.    
     To address the characterization of anthropogenic pollution, the same research team plans to return this coming summer to sample the background air without the volcanic contribution, using the same equipment and sampling sites. The 'before' and 'after' snapshots will help to isolate the chemical fingerprint of the volcanic particles. This will improve our understanding of the potential health, environmental, and ecosystem effects of volcanic plumes.
     The eruptive events of 2018 have reshaped the land and the lives for many residents in Hawaiʻi Island's lower Puna District. The end of the eruption allows all of us across the island to breathe more easily, literally and figuratively, and provides an opportunity to better understand the chemistry and impacts of the Kīlauea volcanic plume.
     Three earthquakes with three or more felt reports occurred in Hawaiʻi during the past week: a magnitude-2.8 quake 26 km (16 mi) west of Pepeʻekeo at a depth of 33 km (21 mi) on April 1 at 9:42 p.m. HST; a magnitude-3.4 quake 10 km (6 mi) northeast of Pāhala at a depth of 31 km (19 mi) on March 31 at 7:49 a.m. HST; and a magnitude-3.7 quake 2 km (1 mi) southeast of Kapaʻau at a depth of 38 km (24 mi) on March 29 at 8:29 p.m. HST.
     Visit volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo for past Volcano Watch articles, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa updates, volcano photos, maps, recent earthquake info, and more. Call 808-967-8862 for weekly Kīlauea updates. Email questions to askHVO@usgs.gov.

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FLIGHT PLANS for Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park for April, 2019, are:
     April 8, 10 a.m. to noon, for invasive faya tree surveys on the Keamoku flows above Highway 11 to Kīpukapuaulu.
     April 18, 8 a.m. to noon, for invasive Guinea grass surveys and control along Keauhou Trail, from the coast to 2,700-foot elevation.
     April 22, 10 a.m. to noon, for invasive faya tree surveys on Mauna Loa between the powerline road and Kīpukapuaulu.
     April 24, at 8 a.m. and April 26 at 11 a.m., to fly supplies and crews for petrel monitoring from the Kīlauea helipad at 4,000-foot elevation to Mauna Loa at 9,000 feet and back. 
     April 18 and April 24, 8 a.m. to noon, to transport fence material, field equipment and supplies to the Ka‘ū desert boundary between sea level and 3,000-foot elevation.
     USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory may conduct flight operations over Kīlauea and Mauna Loa to assess volcanic activity and maintain instrumentation. The park regrets any noise impact to residents and park visitors. Dates and times are subject to change based on aircraft availability and weather.
     Management of the park requires the use of aircraft to monitor and research volcanic activity, conduct search-and-rescue missions and law enforcement operations, support management of natural and cultural resources, and to maintain backcountry facilities.

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KAʻ Ū TROJANS BOYS BASEBALL team played Waiakea Thursday. The Warriors took the game, 11 to 1.

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Print edition of The Kaʻū Calendar is free to 5,500 mailboxes 
throughout Kaʻū, from Miloliʻi through Volcano, and free on 
stands throughout the district. Read online at kaucalendar.com
Kaʻū Trojans Spring Sports Schedule
Sat., April 13, 3 p.m., @Kamehameha
Fri., April 19, BIIF Semi-Finals
Sat., April 20, BIIF Semi-Finals
Fri., April 26, BIIF Finals
Sat., April 27, BIIF Finals
Wed.-Sat., May 8-11, HHSAA
Fri., April 12, BIIF Semi-Finals
Sat., April 13, BIIF Semi-Finals
Fri., April 19, BIIF Finals
Sat., April 20, BIIF Finals
Wed., May 1-4, HHSAA
Boys Volleyball:
Tue., April 9, 6 p.m., host Waiakea
Fri., April 12, 6 p.m., @Keaʻau
Wed., April 17, 6 p.m., Kamehameha
Fri., April 19, 6 p.m., host Honokaʻa
Mon. April 22, BIIF First Round
Wed., April 24, BIIF Semi-Finals
Thu., April 25, BIIF Finals
Thu.-Sat., May 2-4, HHSAA
Sat., April 13, 9 a.m., @HPA
Sat., April 20, 9 a.m., @Kamehameha
Fri., April 26, 2 p.m., BIIF Semi-Finals
Sat., April 27, 3 p.m., BIIF Finals
Fri.-Sat., May 3-4, HHSAA

U.S. CENSUS BUREAU WILL HIRE temporary Census Takers, with pay starting at $16 per hour. Census Takers help make the 2020 Census an accurate and complete count. A release from the Census Bureau said, "There are so many reasons our nation needs to be counted completely and accurately. The count happens every 10 years with the decennial census, which influences how more than $675 billion from more than 100 federal programs are distributed to states and localities each year."
     Census numbers affect Medicaid, school lunch programs, community development grants, road and school construction, medical services, business locations, and more. See descriptions, frequently asked questions, and apply at 2020census.gov/jobs.

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Sunday Clay - High Fire! with Erik Wold, eight week workshop starts Sunday, April 7. Morning session, 11:30 a.m. – 2:30 p.m.; afternoon session, 2:45 p.m. – 5:45 p.m., Volcano Art Center. Handmade functional pottery art – max. eight wheel throwers and three hand-builder spots per session. All skill levels. $180/VAC member, $200/non-member, plus $15 supply fee per person. Register: volcanoartcenter.org, 967-8222

Ham Radio Potluck Picnic, Sunday, April 7, 1st Sunday monthly, noon – 2 p.m., Manukā State Park. Anyone interested in learning about ham radio is welcome to attend. View sites.google.com/site/southpointarc or
sites.google.com/view/southhawaiiares/home. Rick Ward, 938-3058

Hawai‘i Wildlife Fund Coastal Net Patrol, Monday, April 8. Free; donations appreciated. RSVP to kahakai.cleanups@gmail.com, 769-7629

Free STD Testing, Monday, April 8, 2nd Monday monthly, 9 a.m. – noon, Ocean View Community Center. Sponsored by Hawai‘i Department of Health. Call for appt. on different day or time. Teenagers 14+ do not need parent/guardian consent. Confidential. Free condoms and lube. 895-4927

Kickball, Monday, April 8 through 29, 2:30 p.m – 3:30 p.m., Kahuku Park, H.O.V.E. Register keiki ages 6-12 April 1-5. Free. 929-9113, hawaiicounty.gov/pr-recreation

Kaʻū Coffee Festival Meeting, Monday, April 8, 5 p.m. at Pāhala Plantation House.

Pāhala Neighborhood Watch Mtg., Monday, April 8, 2nd Monday monthly, 5 p.m., activity room at Kaʻū District Gym.

Hypertension Management, Monday, April 8, 15, and 22, 5 p.m. to 7 p.m., Kaʻū District Gym, with Hui Mālama Ola Nā ʻŌiwi.

Free Vision Screenings, Tuesday, April 9, Nāʻālehu Elementary. Students receive free comprehensive eye exam and sunglasses. If given a prescription, keiki will receive free eyeglasses with choice of frames, with parental consent. Mission co-sponsored by Tūtū & Me and Project Vision Hawaiʻi. pidf.org/programs/tutu_and_meprojectvisionhawaii.org, 808-430-0388

Hawai‘i County Council Mtgs., Tuesday, April 9 (Committees), Wednesday, April 10, (Council), Hilo. Ka‘ū residents can participate via videoconferencing at Nā‘ālehu State Office Building. Agendas at hawaiicounty.gov.

C.E.R.T. Discovery Harbour/Nā‘ālehu, Tuesday, April 9, 4 p.m – 6 p.m., Discovery Harbour Community Hall. Community Emergency Response Team info and training scenarios. Public welcome. Dina Shisler, dinashisler24@yahoo.com, 410-935-8087

Scholarship Application Deadline for American Association of University Women-Kona, Wednesday, April 10. Two $1,000 awards for two-year vocational program attendees. Application packets at kona-hi.aauw.net. sharonnind@aol.com

Volcano Bay Clinic Mobile Health Unit Visit: Dental, Wednesday, April 10, 8 a.m. – 5 p.m. Medical, Thursday, April 25, 1 p.m – 5 p.m. Cooper Center, Volcano Village. Must be Bay Clinic, Inc. patient. 333-3600 for appt. thecoopercenter.org

Ki‘i, Wednesday, April 10, 10 a.m. – noon, Kīlauea Visitor Center lānai. Acclaimed artist James Kanani Kaulukukui Jr. shares his expertise and the essential role of ki‘i, statue, in Hawaiian society. Free; park entrance fees apply. nps.gov/havo

Free Vision Screenings, Thursday, April 11, Volcano School of Arts & Sciences. Students receive free comprehensive eye exam and sunglasses. If given a prescription, keiki will receive free eyeglasses with choice of frames, with parental consent. Mission co-sponsored by Tūtū & Me and Project Vision Hawaiʻi. pidf.org/programs/tutu_and_meprojectvisionhawaii.org, 808-430-0388

Story Time with Auntie Linda from Tūtū and Me, Thursday, April 11, 10:30 a.m. – noon, Nā‘ālehu Public Library. Free; includes craft activity. 929-8571

Hawaiian Civic Club of Ka‘ū, Thursday, April 11, 6:30 p.m., United Methodist Church, Nā‘ālehu. Pres. Berkley Yoshida, 747-0197

‘O Ka‘ū Kākou Mtg., Thursday, April 11, 6:30 p.m., Aspen Center. okaukakou.org

Tales of Forgiveness and Tales of the Three Monks, performed by Storyteller Jeff Gere, Thursday, April 11, 6:30 p.m., Volcano Art Center. $10/VAC member, $15/non-member. 967-8222, volcanoartcenter.org

Hawai‘i Disability Legal Services, Friday, April 12, 9 a.m. – noon, Ocean View Community Center. Free disability legal services provided by Hawai‘i Legal Aid. ovcahi.org, 939-7033

Community Dance, Friday, April 12, 7 p.m – 10 p.m., Cooper Center, Volcano Village. Minors allowed with supervision only. Alcohol-free event. Variety of music. Snacks provided; additional pūpū welcome. Free. 967-7800, thecoopercenter.org

Hawai‘i Wildlife Fund Annual Manuka/NARS Cleanup, Saturday, April 13. Free; donations appreciated. RSVP: kahakai.cleanups@gmail.com, 769-7629

Parenting Class & Saturday School, Saturday, April 13, 7:30 a.m. – 12:30 p.m., Ocean View Community Center, downstairs. Sponsored by Nā‘ālehu Elementary School. 939-7033, ovcahi.org
Pancake Breakfast and Raffle, Saturday, April 13, 8 a.m. – 11 a.m., Ocean View Community Center. To volunteer, call 939-7033. ovcahi.org

Soft Pastel Still Life with Patti Pease Johnson, Saturday, April 13, 9 a.m. – noon, Volcano Art Center. $45/VAC member, $50/non-member, plus $10 supply fee. Beginner and intermediate artists welcome. Register: volcanoartcenter.org, 967-8222

Nā Mamo O Kāwā ʻOhana Work Day, Saturday, April 13, meet 9:30 a.m., Northern Gate, Kāwā. RSVP: James Akau, jakau@nmok.org, 561-9111. nmok.orgfacebook.com/NMOK.Hawaii

Ka‘u Unity Celebration, Saturday, April 13, 10 a.m. – 2 p.m., multi-purpose room, Ka‘ū District Gym. All ages. Free. Register same day. 928-3102, hawaiicounty.gov/pr-recreation

Zentangle: Celtic-Inspired Knotwork with Ellen O'Dunn, Saturday, April 13, 10 a.m. – 1 p.m., Volcano Art Center. Bring drawing supplies; loaner supplies available. Bring snack to share. $30/VAC member, $35/non-member, plus $10 supply fee. Register: volcanoartcenter.org, 967-8222

Hula Kahiko - Kumu Kini Ka‘awa with Kua O Ka Lā Public Charter School, Saturday, April 13, 10:30 a.m. – 11:30 a.m., hula platform near Volcano Art Center Gallery. Hula performance. Free; park entrance fees apply. 967-8222, volcanohula@gmail.com, volcanoartcenter.org

Nā Mea Hula with Loke Kamanu & ‘Ohana, Saturday, April 13, 11 a.m. – 1 p.m., Volcano Art Center Gallery porch. Hands-on cultural demonstration. Free; park entrance fees apply. 967-8222, volcanohula@gmail.com, volcanoartcenter.org

Jazz in the Forest: Jazz Goes to the Movies, Saturday, April 13, 5:30 p.m., Volcano Art Center. Watch Jean Pierre Thoma and the Jazztones play along with a collection of tunes alongside a silver screen. $20/VAC member, $25/non-member. Register: volcanoartcenter.org, 967-8222

Lava Lounge Entertainment, Saturday, April 13, 7 p.m. – 10 p.m., Kīlauea Military Camp. Soul Town performs. $5 cover per person. Open to authorized patrons and sponsored guests. Park entrance fees apply. kilaueamilitarycamp.com

Two $1,000 Scholarships are available from American Association of University Women-Kona to any female high school graduate or older women attending a two-year vocational program leading to a marketable skill at Palamanui Campus. Applications must be postmarked by Wednesday, April 10.  Application packets available at kona-hi.aauw.net. Contact sharonnind@aol.com.

Beginning Farmer Institute Cohort Applications open through Monday, April 15. Free training program which "prepares new producers of any age or operation type for a successful future in agriculture." Applications at nfu.org/education/beginning-farmer-institute.

Kaʻū Coffee Fest invites non-profits, clubs, cooperatives, and businesses to sign up for booths at the 11th annual Kaʻū Coffee Fest Hoʻolauleʻa on Saturday, May 4 at Pāhala Community Center. The all-day event comes with music, hula, coffee tasting, and meeting the famous Kaʻū Coffee farmers. See KauCoffeeFestival.com.
     Booth fees are $100 for food vendors; $60 for non-food items and crafts, including coffee and coffee samples; and $35 for pre-approved information displays. No campaign and other political displays. Fifty percent discounts for non-profit organizations and cooperatives selling food, crafts, and coffee. Vendors must also obtain county vendor permits costing $30 each and a Department of Health permit, if serving food. Call Gail Nagata 933-0918. Apply by Friday, April 26. Application at KauCoffeeFestival.com. Email to biokepamoses@gmail.com; mail to Brenda Iokepa-Moses, P.O. Box 208PāhalaHI 96777; or call 808-731-5409.

Exhibit: On Sacred Ground by Dino Morrow is open daily through Sunday, May 5 at Volcano Art Center Gallery. The public is invited to see documentary and portrait photography of Hula Arts at the Kīlauea Program. Visit volcanoartcenter.org for more information.

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