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Friday, November 25, 2022

Kaʻū News Briefs, Friday, Nov. 25, 2022

The strength of family is honored during Thanksgiving weekend with a message in Hawaiian
from Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. Photo from Hawai'i State Archives PP-32-2-030

FOR THE THANKSGIVING WEEKEND, this message in Hawaiian and English has been sent out by Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park:
      Wahi a nā kūpuna, ʻIke aku, ʻike mai, kōkua aku, kōkua mai; pēlā ihola ka nohona ʻohana. 'O ka 'ohana, he pilina ko'iko'i nō ia i ka Hawaiʻi. Ola nā iwi i ka paʻa pono o ka ʻohana. Mai ka ʻohana mai kākou e pili pū ai i ka ʻāina, i ka moʻomeheu, a me ka lāhui. He wā maikaʻi kēia no ka hōʻike ʻana aku i ke aloha, me ka mahalo i kou poʻe ʻohana.
     Its translation into English is: Many Native Hawaiians embrace ʻohana (family) as a fundamental form of human expression. It defines their relationship to each other, their ancestors, and the ʻāina (land). In a traditional Hawaiian society, a person would be incomplete without these bonds. Today, take the time to nurture and commemorate these ties.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see www.facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at wwwkaucalendar.com. See upcoming events at https://kaunewsbriefs.blogspot.com/2022/04/upcoming-events-for-kau-and-volcano.html.

OUTSTANDING HIKES IN HAWAI'I VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK are listed in a post from the Park as Kaʻū residents host families and friends from a far during the holidays: "There is nothing like getting some fresh air on a stunning hike. Whether it is hiking to witness an active eruption or exploring the scenic coastline, we’ve got you covered. These are some of the best hikes at Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park to put on your bucket list:
     Crater Rim Trail to Kūpinaʻi Pali – Where is the lava? Right across the street from the Kīlauea Visitor Center. Follow the eruption viewing signs along an old road damaged by an earthquake in 1983 and get some of the best views of Kaluapele (Kīlauea caldera). The trail is only a ½ mile one-way and is family-friendly. Don’t forget a flashlight and rain jacket if you plan to see the glow at night!
    Nāhuku – Walk through a lush rainforest filled with rare plants, birds, and giant tree ferns. This will lead you to a cave where a river of lava flowed 550 years ago during the ʻAilāʻau eruption. For the best experience, visit before 9 a.m. or after 4 p.m. to hear the Hawaiian honeycreepers' chorus and avoid large crowds. This trail is an easy ½ mile round trip from the Nāhuku parking area or a 1.5-mile round trip from the Kīlauea Iki parking area.
Outstanding, safe hiking trails in Hawai'i Volcanoes Park are listed as family and friends visit area residents for
the holidays. NPS photo by Janice Wei
– Always wanted to be a geologist? Visit Maunaulu down the Chain of Craters Road. It is a treasure trove of geologic formations and a great place to get away from crowds between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. Stand next to a fissure than unzipped the earth and produced fountains up to 1,700 feet. That’s taller than the empire state building! This trail is a moderate 2.5 miles round-trip.
     Kīlauea Iki – There is no way around it! This is one of the most scenic day hikes, where you descend 400 feet through the rainforest into a volcanic crater. Kīlauea Iki parking area is an excellent place to start if you arrive before 10 a.m. If not, hike to the Kīlauea Iki loop from the Devastation parking area via        Byron Ledge Trail.
    For more on these trails, visit the park website: https://go.nps.gov/HAVO_hikes\

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see www.facebook.com/kaucalendar. See latest print edition at wwwkaucalendar.com. See upcoming events at https://kaunewsbriefs.blogspot.com/2022/04/upcoming-events-for-kau-and-volcano.html.

VOLCANO ALERT LEVEL AND AVIATION COLOR CODES in Hawai'i and American Samoa are explained inn this week's Volcano Watch by USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientist Natalia Deligne:
    Currently, Kīlauea is erupting and is at WATCH/ORANGE, Mauna Loa is in elevated unrest and is at ADVISORY/YELLOW, and the remaining six monitored volcanoes are at NORMAL/GREEN.
What do these designations mean, how does HVO assign them, and how can you find out if there is a change?
    The first of the two-word designation is the Volcano Alert Level, which reflects the danger the volcano poses to people on the ground and infrastructure (“life and property”). USGS Volcano Alert Levels were established in 2006 and the four terms (NORMAL, ADVISORY, WATCH, WARNING) were chosen to mirror those used at the time by NOAA's National Weather Service for severe storms and floods.
    NORMAL indicates a non-eruptive background state of activity, ADVISORY reflects an activity level elevated above background, WATCH is used when an eruption is likely, or an eruption is occurring with limited hazards, and WARNING means a hazardous eruption is imminent, underway, or suspected.
    What does the color mean? The Aviation Color Code is designed specifically for the aviation sector. It was originally developed by the Alaska Volcano Observatory in the 1990s to rapidly communicate to pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers the threats posed to aviation by restless or erupting volcanoes. In the early 2000s, the International Civil Aviation Organization adopted the system, and the Aviation Color Code is now a recommended practice for all volcano observatories around the world.
Icons for the ground-based Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code. Right now in Hawaii and American Samoa, Kīlauea is erupting and is at WATCH/ORANGE, Mauna Loa is in elevated unrest and is at ADVISORY/YELLOW, and the remaining six monitored volcanoes are at NORMAL/GREEN. An additional resource for Volcano Alert Levels and Aviation Color Codes is the USGS Fact Sheet FS2006-3139 (https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2006/3139/).

    The Aviation Color Code approach is similar to the Volcano Alert Level (the Aviation Color Code inspired the Volcano Alert Level) but is specifically for the aviation sector. GREEN and YELLOW have the same definition as NORMAL and ADVISORY, while ORANGE (eruption likely or an eruption is occurring with no/minor ash) and RED (eruption with significant ash emission is imminent, underway, or suspected) are focused on whether there is a threat to aviation posed by volcanic ash.
    To determine the appropriate Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code, HVO monitors volcanic activity around the clock with seismometers, cameras, satellites, and other instruments that can detect signs of magma moving underground or lava and ash actively erupting.
    Knowing exactly when to change the Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code can be challenging. We do not have set thresholds: each situation is different. We decide by looking at all monitoring data, previous unrest and eruption patterns, and what is known about the processes occurring at the volcano. Typically, there is extended discussion among HVO scientists before a change is made. Sometimes the designation is unchanged for many years, although occasionally, frequent changes are warranted.
The north wall of Moku‘āweoweo, Mauna Loa’s summit caldera, includes
 the true summit of Mauna Loa, at an elevation of 13,679 feet (4,169 meters).
 The floor of the caldera is visible in the foreground, with the fissure vents
 1984 cross-cutting the bottom left portion of the image.
USGS image by K. Mulliken
    Kīlauea's current status is WATCH/ORANGE. The ongoing eruption is confined within Halemaʻumaʻu crater—posing no threat to life or property—and the eruption has no to minor volcanic ash emission.
    Mauna Loa's current status is ADVISORY/YELLOW. This reflects elevated rates of earthquakes and ground deformation above background. This activity indicates that magma is being supplied to Mauna Loa’s magma chamber, but at this stage magma is not moving beneath the ground to erupt on the surface. If signs of magma on its way to erupt appear, or if Mauna Loa returns to background levels of activity, HVO will change Mauna Loa's Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code accordingly.
    Volcano Alert Level changes are announced in a USGS Volcanic Activity Notification, which explains why the change was made and what is likely to happen next based on the current scientific consensus (Aviation Color Code changes are also announced in a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation). These notifications are posted on our website and social media. You can subscribe to get them delivered by email or text through the Volcano Notification Service (https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vns2/).
    In summary, the Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code communicates the degree and, in some cases, the time frame of a particular volcanic threat for people on the ground and in the aviation sector. With this information, public safety and emergency managers, individuals and families, and businesses can take appropriate and timely steps to keep our communities safe.

VOLCANO ACTIVITY UPDATES: Kīlauea volcano is erupting. Its USGS Volcano Alert level is at WATCH (https://www.usgs.gov/natural-hazards/volcano-hazards/about-alert-levels). Kīlauea updates are issued daily.
    Over the past week, lava has continued to erupt from the western vent within Halemaʻumaʻu crater in
A southwest-facing view of the eruption within Halema‘uma‘u,
at the summit of Kīlauea. Diffuse steam and volcanic gases are
 emitted from the crater floor and eruption site.
USGS image by K. Mulliken
Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain elevated and were last measured at approximately 350 tonnes per day (t/d) on November 22. Seismicity is elevated but stable, with few earthquakes and ongoing volcanic tremor. Over the past week, summit tiltmeters recorded two deflation-inflation (DI) events. For more information on the current eruption of Kīlauea, see https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/kilauea/recent-eruption.
    Mauna Loa is not erupting and remains at Volcano Alert Level ADVISORY. This alert level does not mean that an eruption is imminent or that progression to an eruption from the current level of unrest is certain. Mauna Loa updates are issued daily.
    This past week, about 144 small-magnitude earthquakes were recorded below the summit and upper elevation flanks of Mauna Loa—the majority of these occurred at shallow depths less than 15 kilometers (9 miles) below sea level. Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements show continued ground deformation consistent with inflation of a magma chamber beneath the summit. Gas concentrations and fumarole temperatures at both the summit and at Sulphur Cone on the Southwest Rift Zone have remained stable over the past week. Webcams show no changes to the landscape. For more information on current monitoring of Mauna Loa, see: https://www.usgs.gov/volcanoes/mauna-loa/monitoring.
    There were five events with three or more felt reports in the Hawaiian Islands during the past week: a M3.6 earthquake 12 km (7 mi) ESE of Pāhala at 29 km (18 mi) depth on Nov. 20 at 5:07 p.m. HST, a M2.8 earthquake 5 km (3 mi) E of Waimea at 14 km (9 mi) depth on Nov. 18 at 3:45 p.m. HST, a M3.5 earthquake 6 km (3 mi) SSW of Pāhala at 32 km (20 mi) depth on Nov. 17 at 3:07 p.m. HST, a M3.0 earthquake 26 km (16 mi) E of Honaunau-Napoopoo at 0 km (0 mi) depth on Nov. 17 at 7:22 a.m. HST, a M3.9 earthquake 5 km (3 mi) SSW of Pāhala at 31 km (19 mi) depth on Nov. 16 at 6:56 p.m. HST.
    HVO continues to closely monitor Kīlauea's ongoing eruption and Mauna Loa for any signs of increased activity.
     Visit HVO’s website for past Volcano Watch articles, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa updates, volcano photos, maps, recent earthquake info, and more. Email questions to askHVO@usgs.gov.

THE ALOHA FRIDAY MARKETPLACE WILL OPEN in early December every Friday from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. at Nāʻālehu Hongwanji Mission 95-5695 Mamalahoa Highway.
    Aloha Friday Marketplace features Made in Hawai'i Products, Organic Produce, Creative Crafts, Art, Flowers and Plants, Food, Kaʻū Coffee, Gluten Free, Low Carb Goodies, Wellness Services and Products, Clothing, Hand Crafted Treats and more. For questions and vendor inquiries, email AlohaFridayMarket@gmail.com or text 808-256-3193.