About The Kaʻū Calendar

Friday, September 27, 2019

Kaʻū News Briefs, Friday, September 27, 2019

Kaʻū Coffee fields, newly pruned, in the rains from Hurricane Lane in 2018. A new report from the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change states storms will get worse if carbon dioxide emissions aren't lessened drastically
"very soon." Photo by Julia Neal
UNPRECEDENTED AND ENDURING CHANGES IN THE OCEAN AND FROZEN PARTS OF THE PLANET call for human adaptations now, contends the Climate Change Special Report. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released the assessment this week. Hawaiʻi Sen. Brian Schatz, who chairs the Democratic Special Committee on the Climate Crisis, said, "The good news is that young people are taking the lead. There is a growing global movement around climate action, and young people around the world are demanding we do better."
     From the report, he mentioned, "The warming climate is already killing coral reefs, supercharging monster storms, and fueling deadly marine heat waves. Extreme floods that have historically struck some coastal cities and small island nations once every 100 years will become an annual occurrence by 2050," and "Global sea levels could rise by more than three feet by the end of this century."
Wood Valley flooding during Hurricane Lane. Photo by Julia Neal
     Schatz said the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change "confirmed once again that the climate crisis is real and already having devastating effects. According to their experts, things will only get worse if we don't take 'very serious action very soon' to address this planetary emergency."
     Sen. Mazie Hirono weighed in, saying that Marine Heat Wave is "a phrase that will become more common in our daily lives (and is) what is likely about to cause one of the worst coral bleaching events in Hawaiʻi. International scientists are sounding the alarm. It's time to listen and take action. Now."
     According to the report, warming and changes in ocean chemistry "are already disrupting species throughout the ocean food web, with impacts on marine ecosystems and people that depend on them. To date, the ocean has taken up more than 90 percent of the excess heat in the climate system. By 2100, the ocean will take up two to four times more heat than between 1970 and the present if global warming is limited to 2 degrees Celsius, and up to five to seven times more at higher emissions.
Nāʻālehu Public Library closed last year due to
Hurricane Lane. Photo by Geneveve Fyvie
     "Ocean warming reduces mixing between water layers and, as a consequence, the supply of oxygen and nutrients for marine life. Marine heatwaves have doubled in frequency since 1982 and are increasing in intensity. They are projected to further increase in frequency, duration, extent, and intensity. Their frequency will be 20 times higher at 2°C warming, compared to pre-industrial levels. They would occur 50 times more often if emissions continue to increase strongly.
     "The ocean has taken up between 20 to 30 percent of human-induced carbon dioxide emissions since the 1980s, causing ocean acidification. Continued carbon uptake by the ocean by 2100 will exacerbate ocean acidification." The report states that ocean warming and acidification, loss of oxygen, and changes in nutrient supplies "are already affecting the distribution and abundance of marine life in coastal areas, in the open ocean, and at the sea floor. Shifts in the distribution of fish populations have reduced the global catch potential. In the future, some regions, notably tropical oceans, will see further decreases, but there will be increases in others, such as the Arctic."
     See more in upcoming Kaʻū News Briefs. Read the full report at ipcc.ch/srocc/home/.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

Less opaque areas in the pond at Kīlauea's summit are where scientists are seeing water influx. HVO photo
HALEMAʻUMAʻU CRATER'S TWO-MONTH-OLD HOT POND KEEPS RISING and is larger than a football field. First documented July 25, it showed up as three separate sections, totaling less than 10 meters (33 feet) wide. As of Sept. 25, it is one pond, about 110 m (360 ft) long and 50 m (164 ft) wide.
     With a fairly steady temperature of about 70 degrees Celsius (158 degrees Fahrenheit), the water is estimated by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcanoes Observatory scientists to be about 10 m (33 ft) deep. Water table measurements at the Keller Well  – a 1,262 m (4,140 ft) deep borehole at Kīlauea's summit which provides researchers with a view into the hydrology and history of an active volcano – suggest that the pond could possibly rise another 65 m (210 ft).
     Since Sept. 20, HVO scientists have documented what appears to be an influx of water to the pond, with a less cloudy green showing where water is coming in. Circulation of the water can be observed in recent video and time lapse photo compilations. There are at least three places where water appears to coming into the pond.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

HOW DEEP IS THE DIKE UNDER HIGHWAY 130? This week's Volcano Watch, written by U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory geologist Carolyn Parcheta, seeks to answer that question:
     Even though Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone eruption has been over for about a year, steam continues to appear in new places or reappear in old places, and vegetation continues to die because of lingering heat and steam in areas of the 2018 fissures.  
On May 10, 2018, Highway 130 was newly cracked, with steam coming up from the east side of the road due to the 
dike – tabular body of magma – that intruded Kīlauea's lower East Rift Zone. The two orange and white road 
markers are on slightly uplifted areas of the highway, which are about 100 m (330 ft) apart. Half way between the 
uplifted areas, the road is sagging, a result of the magma intrusion beneath the highway. USGS photo by C. Parcheta
     Some residents are concerned about continuing – or potentially new – volcanic activity in the lower East Rift Zone because they are feeling, seeing, and smelling the heat, steam, and odors that remain in the area. In fact, the most common questions for USGS HVO geologists, who work in the LERZ, are, "What is that smell?,"  "How much gas is still coming out?," and "How deep is the magma below me?"
     HVO's July 18, 2019, Volcano Watch article, volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/hvo_volcano_watch.html?vwid=1421, addressed the lingering heat and gas aspect of the story. This week we examine how deep the dike – the intrusive body of magma that fed the 2018 LERZ eruption – might be.
     On May 5 to 7, 2018, when fissures 7 through 12 were opening farther to the west – up rift – of Leilani Estates, the pavement on Highway 130 cracked and began to sag. As it did, the area was immediately engulfed in steam and sulfur dioxide gas, so much so that one could not see across the road.
     A dike is an elongate tabular body – envision a knife blade – that runs parallel to the rift zone. It is fed by magma from deeper within the rift zone core. 
Steam rises from the road in Leilani Estates during the
2018 eruption. HVO photo
     As magma rises in a dike, it pushes the surrounding rock apart to make room for magma to reach the surface. This causes the ground directly above the dike to sink, and ground on either side of the dike to lift.
     As a dike continues moving toward the surface, the sinking, or sagging, above it can progress to form a linear depression with well-defined walls – a feature that geologists call a graben. In 2018, Highway 130 experienced sagging, but a graben did not form across the road.
     As soon as Highway 130 sagged and increased heat and gas were observed, HVO field crews documented and numbered ten major cracks opening across the road. The total extension measured across these ten cracks was 22 cm (8.6 in) over two days. We were unable to continue measuring crack widths when steel plates were placed on top of them to keep the road open and allow the safe flow of traffic.
     Sagging and cracks in the road, as well as increased heat and gas output, meant that magma was rising closer to the surface under Highway 130. At the same time, new fissures were opening closer to the highway.
     Although steel plates concealed the growing cracks, HVO geologists had other ways to determine what was happening below the road. Sagging ground on Highway 130 and in neighboring properties provided valuable information about where the magma was located.
     Theoretical calculations of ground deformation around a dike have been known to volcanologists for decades. Previous modeling shows that the horizontal distance between two uplifted sections of ground above a dike is directly related to dike depth below the surface. 
     On Highway 130, the ground rose slightly in the area of cracks 3 and 8, which were about 100 m (330 ft) apart. Between those two cracks, the ground sagged. Crack 5 was in the middle of the sag, about 50 m (about 165 ft) from crack 8 to the north and crack 3 to the south.
Cracks, outlined in paint, from the 2018 eruption. HVO photo
     Using the aforementioned model, we can determine how close magma came to reaching the surface where Highway 130 cracked and sagged in 2018. Based on a 100 m (330 ft) distance between uplifts on either side of the down-dropped area, the upper edge of the dike must be only 50‒100 m (about 165‒330 ft) below the highway.
     The portion of the 2018 dike below Highway 130 did not have enough energy to reach the surface. Now that the uppermost dike is probably solidified, the 2018 magma just below the surface of the highway and neighboring properties will remain frozen in the ground as solid rock.
     Volcano Activity Updates
     Kῑlauea Volcano is not erupting and its USGS Volcano Alert level remains at NORMAL. Kīlauea deformation and seismicity showed no notable changes over the past week. Sulfur dioxide emission rates are low at the summit and below detection limits at Puʻu ʻŌʻō and the LERZ. The water pond at the bottom of Halema‘uma‘u continues to slowly expand and deepen.
      At or near the 2018 LERZ eruptive fissures, elevated ground temperatures and minor releases of gas (steam, tiny amounts of hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide) persist. These are typical post-eruption conditions and are expected to be long-term.
     Hazards remain at the LERZ and summit of Kīlauea. Closures and warnings in these areas should be heeded. The 2018 lava flows are primarily on private property; please be respectful and do not enter or park on private property.
     Visit volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo for past Volcano Watch articles, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa updates, volcano photos, maps, recent earthquake info, and more. Email questions to askHVO@usgs.gov.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

Rep. Tulsi Gabbard. Photo from Tulsi2020.com
REP. TULSI GABBARD NOW SUPPORTS THE IMPEACHMENT INQUIRY into Pres. Donald Trump, to investigate alleged wrongdoing in dealings with the Ukranian government. She was the sole holdout of the four U.S. congresspersons for Hawaiʻi. She told CNN earlier this week that "It's important that Donald Trump be voted out of office by the American people." She released a statement today:
     "Up to this point, I have been opposed to pursuing impeachment because it will further divide our already badly divided country.
     "However, after looking carefully at the transcript of the conversation with Ukraine's President, the whistleblower complaint, the Inspector General memo, and President Trump's comments about the issue, unfortunately, I believe that if we do not proceed with the inquiry, it will set a very dangerous precedent. Future presidents, as well as anyone in positions of power in the government, will conclude that they can abuse their position for personal gain, without fear of accountability or consequences.
     "If we allow the President to abuse his or her power, then our society will rot from top to bottom. We will turn into a banana republic, where people in positions of power – from the president all the way down to the traffic cop – will feel it's okay to abuse their power with no consequences.
     "This is not the kind of country that any of us want to see.
     "So it is unfortunate, but necessary, that I speak in support of the inquiry into the President's alleged abuse of power in relation to his interactions with Ukraine's leaders. This inquiry must be swift, thorough, and narrowly-focused. It cannot be turned into a long, protracted partisan circus that will further divide our country and undermine our democracy."
      State Sen. Kai Kahele, who is running for Gabbard's position in the U.S. House of Representatives, also said he supports the impeachment proceedings. 

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

Print edition of The Kaʻū Calendar is free to 5,500 mailboxes 
throughout Kaʻū, from Miloliʻi through Volcano, and free on 
stands throughout the district. Read online at kaucalendar.com
2019 Kaʻū High School Fall Athletics Schedule
See khpes.org/athletics-home for details and updates

Football, Division II:
Thu., Oct. 3, 7 p.m. Kamehameha hosts Kaʻū
Sat., Oct. 12, 1 p.m., Kaʻū hosts HPA
Sat., Oct. 19, 11 a.m., Kaʻū hosts Pāhoa
Sat., Oct. 26, 1 p.m., Kohala hosts Kaʻū
Fri. and Sat., Nov. 1 and 2, Div II BIIF Championship
Fri. and Sat., Nov. 15 and 16, HHSAA Div II Semifinals
Fri., Nov. 29, HHSAA Div II Championship

Girls Volleyball, Kaʻū District Gym:
Wed., Oct. 2, 6 p.m., Kaʻū hosts Pāhoa
Fri., Oct. 4, 6 p.m., Parker hosts Kaʻū
Tue., Oct. 8, 6 p.m., Kaʻū hosts Ehunui
Thu., Oct. 10, 6 p.m., Konawaena hosts Kaʻū
Mon., Oct. 14, 6 p.m., BIIF Div II First Round at Keaʻau
Tue., Oct. 15, 2:30 p.m., BIIF Div II Semifinals at Keaʻau
Wed., Oct. 16, 4 p.m., BIIF Div II Finals at Keaʻau
Wed.-Sat., Oct. 23-26, HHSAA DII Tournament, Oʻahu

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

See monthly and weekly Kaʻū and Volcano Events, Meetings, Entertainment, Exercise, and Meditation at kaucalendar.com.

Fee-Free Day: National Public Lands Day, Saturday, Sept. 28. Park entrance is free. neefusa.org

National Public Lands Day Volunteering, Saturday, Sept. 28, 8:45a.m.-noon, meet at Kīlauea Visitor Center lānai. Wear sturdy hiking shoes and long pants. Bring hat, rain gear, day pack, snacks and water. Gloves and tools provided. Parental or guardian accompaniment or written consent required for under 18. No advance registration required. Volunteers receive pass to return and enjoy park fee-free another day. No entrance fees. nps.gov/havo

Nature & Culture, Saturday, Sept. 28, 9:30-11:30a.m., Kahuku Unit, HVNP. Free, moderate hike, approx. 2 miles. nps.gov/havo

Realms and Divisions, Sunday, Sept. 29, 9:30-11:30a.m., Kahuku Unit, HVNP. Free, moderately difficult, two-mile, hike. Bring snack. nps.gov/havo

E māka‘ika‘i iā Ka‘auea: Explore the Summit, daily (beginning Oct. 1), 11-11:45a.m., in front of Kīlauea Visitor Center. New ranger guided walk exploring geologic features of Kīlauea and their deep connections to Hawaiian history and culture. All ages. Free; park entrance fees apply. 985-6101, nps.gov/havo/

Hawai‘i County Council Mtgs., Tuesday, Oct. 1 (Committees), Wednesday, Oct. 2 (Council), Hilo. Ka‘ū residents can participate via videoconferencing at Nā‘ālehu State Office Building. Agendas at hawaiicounty.gov.

Ka‘ū Coffee Growers Mtg., Tuesday, Oct. 1, 6-8p.m., Pāhala Community Center.

Hula Voices with Practitioner Randy Lee, Wednesday, Oct. 2 – 1st Wednesday, monthly – 5:30-7p.m., Volcano Art Center Gallery. Desiree Moana Cruz moderates the talk story session. Free. 967-7565, volcanoartcenter.org

Grand Opening of the Temporary Nā‘ālehu Library Location at the Nā‘ālehu State Office, Thursday, Oct. 3, 10a.m.. Popcorn, lemonade, and fines forgiveness offered in celebration. Library hours normal, except closed during Hawai‘i County Council Committee and Council meetings, first and third Tuesday and Wednesday, monthly. 939-2442, librarieshawaii.org

Women's Expression Group, Thursday, Oct. 3 – 1st Thursday monthly – 3-4:30p.m., PARENTS Inc., Nā‘ālehu. Women welcome to drop in. Free. Lindsey Miller, 333-3460, lindsey@hawaiiparents.org

Ocean View Neighborhood Watch Mtg., Thursday, Oct. 3, 6-7p.m., Ocean View Community Center. 939-7033, ovcahi.org

‘O Ka‘ū Kākou Mtg., Thursday, Oct. 3, 6:30-8:30p.m., Aspen Center. okaukakou.org

31st Trash Show, Tuesday-Saturday, Oct. 4-25, 10a.m.-4p.m., East Hawai‘i Cultural Center. Opening reception, Friday, Oct. 4, 5:30-7p.m. Started in 1988 by Volcano Village artist Ira Ono, the show exhibits works of art made from trash, such as debris from Ka‘ū beaches. $15 general admission, $12 seniors and children. No pre-sale; tickets sold at door 961-5711, ehcc.org

Oktoberfest, Friday, Oct. 4, doors open 5:30p.m., dinner served at 6 p.m., St. Jude's Episcopal Church, Ocean View. Bratwurst, Sauerkraut, Boiled Potatoes, Drinks and Dessert. Live music by Last Fling Band. Tickets at door: $8/person, $15/two, $20/family. 939-7000, stjudeshawaii.org

Nationwide 2019 Congressional App Challenge submissions from middle and high schoolers are open through Friday, Nov. 1. Submit to Rep. Tulsi Gabbard, CongressionalAppChallenge.us, apps "designed to promote innovation and engagement in computer science." All skill levels, all devices and platforms, and all programming languages, accepted.

Tiny Treasure Invitational Exhibit at Volcano Art Center gallery in Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park runs through Sunday, Nov. 3. Open to the public, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. Free; Park entrance fees apply. The exhibition also celebrates VAC's 45th anniversary, Oct. 21.
     Artists include Daniel Rokovitz, Stone O'Daugherty, Kristin Mitsu Shiga, Pat Pearlman, and Amy Flanders, Karen and Mark Stebbins. Also on display, small works from the annual Volcano Art Collaboration from June, featuring Rose Adare, Nash Adams-Pruitt, Lisa Louise Adams, Ed Clapp, Amy Flanders, Bill Hamilton, Liz Miller, Joe Laceby, and Erik Wold. volcanoartcenter.org

Tutoring for Kaʻū Hugh & Pāhala Elementary is Available to All Students of the school, from 2:30 p.m. to 3:30 p.m., Monday through Thursday. Grades Kindergarten-2nd will be in room 3; grades 3-6 will be in room 6 on Mondays, room 11 on Tuesdays through Thursdays; middle school students, will be in building Q; and high school students will be in room M-101 in the science building. Contact khpes.org or 808-313-4100 for more.

Vendor Booth Space is Available for the Kamahalo Craft Fair. The 12th annual event will be held Thanksgiving weekend, Friday, Nov. 299 a.m. to 4 p.m., and Saturday, Nov. 30, 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. at Cooper Center. Booths are open for crafters with quality homemade and homegrown products. Food vendors must prepare all food items in a certified kitchen and must have a Department of Health permit displayed prominently at their booth. Application online at thecoopercenter.org. Direct questions to 936-9705 or kilaueatutu@gmail.com.

Girls Exploring Math and Science Registration is open to Kaʻū students The annual event for fifth graders will be held on Tuesday, Dec. 10 at King Kamehameha's Kona Beach Hotel. The mission of the American Association of University Women is to advance equity for women and girls though advocacy, education, and research.
     "First Come, First Served" registration forms were mailed to all West Hawaiʻi and Kaʻū schools on Sept. 9. Registration fee is $20 and scholarships are available. No girl will be turned away because of financial need. Once the 336 available spots are filled, no registrations will be accepted.
     All fifth grade girls residing in the West Hawaiʻi School complex and Kaʻū who attend public, private, or home schools are welcome. Sponsorship of girls by individuals or businesses will be accepted. For more information about GEMS, to volunteer or sponsor a girl, or to request a registration packet, contact Cindy Armer, GEMS chairperson at cbarmer@hotmail.com or 808-896-7180. Applications are also available at Kona-hi.aauw.net.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.