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Friday, January 24, 2020

Ka‘ū News Briefs, Friday, January 24, 2020

USGS HVO geochemist measured gases released from Kīlauea's summit lava lake surface to study its
composition, before the 2018 eruption. The instrument is a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer.
See Volcano Watch below. USGS photo/Janet Babb
THE LAST DECADE FOR SELLING GAS-ONLY POWERED CARS in Hawaiʻi would begin this year if state Rep. Takashi Ohno's bill passes the Legislature. House Bill 2593 would allow the sale of only electric, hydrogen, or hybrid vehicles by car dealerships starting in 2030. Re-sale of gas-powered, used vehicles as well as purchase of large commercial vehicles or buses would still be allowed. "Seeing young leaders take the lead to protect our planet inspired me to make a strong
statement on how Hawaiʻi can be a model of clean energy," said Ohno. "Future visitors to our state will see Hawaiʻi's roads full of green cars and understand how deeply our community cares for the planet we all share."
     Hawaiʻi remains the most fossil-fuel dependent state. The Hawaiʻi Clean Energy Initiative seeks to achieve 100 percent clean energy by 2045, including reducing the state's overall ground transportation fossil fuel use by 385 million gallons per year.
     Rep. Richard Creagan said he thinks it is a positive and bold idea, and will be studying the bill and such aspects as tax credits to help purchase the green vehicles, and availability of charging station that will be needed to carry it out, especially on the Big Island where travel distances are longer and charging stations are few.

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ATTRACTING MORE PHYSICIANS TO HAWAIʻI is the aim of Sen. Mazie Hirono's support of bipartisan, bicameral legislation to increase the number of residency slots available through Medicare.
     The Resident Physician Shortage Reduction Act of 2019 (S. 348) would create 15,000 new residency training slots across the country over five years. The bill would prioritize increasing positions in states like Hawaiʻi with hospital training programs in rural areas, hospitals that focus on community-based training, new medical schools, hospitals already training resident physicians over their cap, hospitals that partner with VA medical centers, and hospitals that focus on community-based training.
     Hirono said today that the bill would help address Hawaiʻi's physician shortage by expanding residency opportunities that would help support and retain local talent in the medical field and expand access to care, particularly in rural and high need areas across the state. "With more and more Hawaiʻi physicians either retiring or leaving the state, we must do more to improve physician recruitment and retention in the islands. This legislation is one important way we can ease pressures on the current health care system, expand access to care, and support training for new physicians in Hawaiʻi."
     According to the Association of American Medical Colleges, the United States is expected to face a shortage of about 120,000 primary care and specialty physicians by 2030. In Hawaiʻi, the physician workforce experienced an eight percent drop in 2019, with the highest shortages in primary care. According to the latest Hawaiʻi physician workforce data, there are currently 3,484 practicing physicians serving in civilian settings statewide. At the end of last year, Hawaiʻi had 245 physician vacancies as doctors retired, left the islands, or cut their hours. However, simply replacing these doctors will not meet Hawaiʻi's current health care needs. It is estimated that upwards of 820 primary care doctors, specialists, and other physicians are needed to ensure people across all islands receive quality health care.
     Hilton Raethel, President and CEO of Healthcare Association of Hawaiʻi, said, "We know that if we train providers here in Hawaiʻi, there is a higher probability that they will remain in the state and practice. This legislation will enable the state to attract and retain more physicians at a time when a number of young people are leaving the state, and offer more educational opportunities for students who are interested in medical school. We appreciate Senator Hirono's continued leadership and support in helping to ensure a strong healthcare workforce to treat our Hawaii residents."
     Jerris Hedges, MD, Dean of the University of Hawaiʻi John A. Burns School of Medicine, said, "There are not enough slots in the required post-graduate training programs for the number of medical school students graduating every year to enter. That slows down the pipeline for providing fully trained doctors into the communities where they are badly needed, including Hawaiʻi. The country, and Hawaiʻi, needs more Resident training programs so that our citizens can have access to the best trained health care providers in our clinics and hospitals, the physicians." 
     During her time in the Senate, Hirono has called for additional doctors, including a particular focus on veterans in Hawaiʻi. In 2014, Hirono chaired a Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee field hearing at the Oʻahu Veterans Center, in which she called attention to the shortage of doctors staffing VA facilities in Hawaiʻi and beyond.

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LOVE THE ARTS, the 16th annual fundraiser for Volcano Arts Center, will be held Saturday, Feb. 8 from 5 p.m. to 9 p.m. at the Niʻaulani Campus in Volcano Village. The gala is the main event to raise funds for Volcano Art Center which offers classes, exhibits, workshops, and creative arts experiences "in a uniquely inspiring environment," states the announcement.
     This year's theme celebrates The Roaring 2020s, highlighted by "unique decorations, decadent food, fine wines and beer, and of course dancing!" states the announcement.
     The evening also features appearances by members of Harmony on Tap and opera singer D'Andrea Pelletier. Live and silent auctions will provide attendees an opportunity to bid on artwork, jewelry, hotel stays, restaurants, local products, services, and gift certificates to businesses and attractions.
     Tickets are $70, $65 for VAC Members, and can be purchased at VAC's Niʻaulani Campus in the village or Gallery in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, online at volcanoartcenter.org/classes-and-workshops/purchase-tickets-to-vac-events, or by calling (808) 967-8222.
     Love The Arts tickets also provide free admission to the LTA Valentine's Day Dance held the following weekend on Saturday, Feb. 15 from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. Learn the Charleston and the Lindy Hop while enjoying live music by the Tin Pan Alleycats. Tickets for this event can also be purchased for $15, $10 VAC Members.
     More info at volcanoartcenter.org.

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MAKAHIKI: A CELEBRATED SEASON will be discussed at this month's Coffee Talk at the Visitor Center of Kahuku Unit of Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park on Friday, Jan. 31, 9:30 a.m. to 11 a.m.
     Makahiki is recognized and observed by many as a time to revel in Hawaiian culture with games, competition, and ceremony, and has come to be regarded as a time of peace and rejuvenation, states the announcement from the Park. In addition, Makahiki held immense importance as a method of time keeping, and was a major influence on the practices of farming, fishing, the division of resources, and even the political workings of the ruling chiefs.
     Kahakaʻio Ravenscraft works at Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park through their partner Hawaii Pacific Parks Association, providing cultural demonstrations for visitors to the Park's "royal grounds." He dedicates his work to perpetuating ‘ike Kupuna (ancestral practices) through the study of kālai kiʻi (sculpture), moʻokūʻauhau (genealogy), and moʻoʻōlelo (story-telling), as well as malama ‘iwi kupuna (care of traditional burial practices). Through his endeavors, Kahakaʻio seeks to empower others to connect to ancestral wisdom and become stewards of their place with the values of aloha ‘āina and mālama honua, states the announcement.
     Coffee Talk at Kahuku is an opportunity to get to know the Park and neighbors, and join an informal conversation on a wide variety of topics. Bring coffe or purchase Kaʻū coffee from HPPA at the event. Entrance to Kahuku Unit is located on Hwy 11 near mile marker 70.5, on the mauka (mountain) side of the road.

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GAS GEOCHEMITSRY – and the accompanying smell – is the focus of this week's Volcano Watch, a weekly article and activity update written by U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists and affiliates. This article is third in a series of articles about HVO people and jobs during Volcano Awareness Month 2020. Next week, another HVO team will write about its work. Today's article is by HVO research geologist and gas geochemistry team member Patricia Nadeau:
     HVO people and jobs, Part 3: Gas geochemistry work stinks!
     As many residents of the Island of Hawaiʻi can attest, volcanic gases can stink – literally. But for those of us at the USGS HVO who are lucky enough to study those gases, our jobs are actually pretty amazing.
     Volcanic gases give clues about volcanic processes, even when no lava is erupting. This is because, similar to a bottle of soda with dissolved bubbles, magma contains dissolved gases that escape as it rises to the surface. Ratios of escaped gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) can tell us magma depth. The total amount of SO2 released also reflects the amount of magma or lava that is degassing.
As fissure 8 erupts on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone in June 2018 (left), a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer measures
 gas emissions from the lava fountains. At right, HVO gas geochemistry team members collect a sample of gas from Sulphur Banks
 in Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park. USGS photos
     No one single device or technique provides all the gas information we need to monitor Hawaiian volcanoes. We use a variety of methods to track gas emissions from Mauna Loa and Kīlauea, including direct measurements and indirect techniques called remote sensing.
     One of our most frequent measurements is the SO2 emission rate – how many tonnes are emitted per day. For this, we don't interact directly with the gas. Instead, we drive or walk under the gas plume with a tool called an ultraviolet spectrometer. SO2 absorbs ultraviolet light, so when more SO2 is present overhead, less ultraviolet light reaches the spectrometer.
     In the current low-emission era at Kīlauea, these measurements are made once every 2-4 weeks. But during the 2018 eruption, we attempted to measure emission rates at least every other day. When Kīlauea's summit lava lake was present, we had a network of ground-based spectrometers that calculated the SO2 emission rate every few seconds! There is no similar network at any other volcano in the world.
     Another measurement we rely on is the ratio of CO2 to SO2. The relative amounts of those gases give us information about the depth of magma, as explained in our February 21, 2019, Volcano Watch, volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/hvo_volcano_watch.html?vwid=1400.
     CO2 does not absorb ultraviolet light like SO2, so we measure CO2 directly. To do this, we use sensors placed right in the volcanic gas. One such instrument – dubbed a 'MultiGas' – was designed by colleagues at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. The MultiGas pumps in gas and determines concentrations of CO2, SO2, H2S (hydrogen sulfide), and water vapor. We then calculate their ratios and track changes that might indicate magma rising within the volcano.
     We have three types of MultiGas at HVO: permanent stations on Kīlauea and Mauna Loa that send data to HVO in real-time; a portable MultiGas, which is the size of a large briefcase and gives us flexibility to check gas chemistry in many places; and a miniaturized MultiGas mounted on UAS (Unoccupied Aircraft Systems, or drones) to measure gas in hazardous or inaccessible sites volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/hvo_volcano_watch.html?vwid=1415.
An HVO scientist collects a volcanic gas sample from a fumarole on 
the rim of Halema‘uma‘u Crater within Kīlauea caldera. USGS photo
     There are additional gases in volcanic plumes that are not present in large amounts but still provide information about volcanic behavior. To measure those minor gases, including chlorine, fluorine, and helium, we use remote and direct methods.
     Many volcanic gases absorb infrared radiation, so during eruptions we can use remote sensing of infrared energy emitted by lava. A device called a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer detects different wavelengths of infrared and measures absorption by numerous gases simultaneously. This gives us many gas ratios that help us to understand degassing processes during eruptions.
     Another way to measure multiple volcanic gases at once is to collect a bottle of gas and send it to the lab for chemical analysis. For this, we use a specialized glass bottle with tubing inserted into a degassing vent called a fumarole. This kind of sampling is currently done once every three months at Sulphur Banks in the Park to track long-term changes in gas chemistry.
     That's a lot of instrumentation, so the gas geochemistry team works closely with HVO technicians and IT specialists to make sure that all our equipment functions properly. We also spend time at our computers to process, interpret, and write up our data. This often involves exchanging ideas with other USGS colleagues, local partners, and scientists around the world to ensure that we understand our volcanoes and hazards as best as we can from the gas geochemistry perspective.
     All that makes for a busy and exciting job, whether the gas stinks or not.
     Volcano Activity Updates
     Kīlauea Volcano is not erupting. Its USGS Volcano Alert level remains at NORMAL.
Kīlauea monitoring data showed no significant changes in seismicity and ground deformation. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remain low. The water lake at the bottom of Halema‘uma‘u continues to slowly expand and deepen.
     Mauna Loa is not erupting. Its USGS Volcano Alert level remains at ADVISORY. This alert level does not mean that an eruption is imminent or that progression to an eruption is certain.
     This past week, 99 small-magnitude earthquakes were recorded beneath the upper elevations of Mauna Loa; the strongest was a M3.1 on Jan. 21. Deformation indicates continued slow summit inflation. Fumarole temperature and gas concentrations on the Southwest Rift Zone remain stable.
     One earthquake with three or more felt reports occurred in the Hawaiian Islands this past week: a magnitude-3.1 quake 18 km (11 mi) northwest of Kalaoa at 38 km (24 mi) depth on Jan. 19 at 9:07 p.m.
     Visit volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo for past Volcano Watch articles, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa updates, volcano photos, maps, recent earthquake info, and more. Email questions to askHVO@usgs.gov.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.

Print edition of The Kaʻū Calendar is free to 5,500 mailboxes 
throughout Kaʻū, from Miloliʻi through Volcano, and free on 
stands throughout the district. Read online at kaucalendar.com
See monthly and weekly Kaʻū and Volcano Events, Meetings, Entertainment, Exercise, and Meditation at kaucalendar.com.

Kaʻū Winter Sports Schedule

Girls Basketball
Tue. and Wed., Jan. 28 and 29 BIIF @Civic
Wed. thru Sat., Feb. 5-8 HHSAA on Oʻahu

Boys Basketball
Mon., Jan. 27 @Kamehameha
Tue. and Wed., Feb. 4 and 5 BIIF @ Kealakehe
Thu. thru Sat., Feb. 13-15 HHSAA on Oʻahu

Sat., Jan. 25 Girls BIIF
Wed. thru Sat., Feb. 5-8 Girls HHSAA on Oʻahu
Sat., Feb. 1 and 8 Boys BIIF
Thu. thru Sat., Feb. 13-15 Boys HHSAA on Oʻahu

Sat., Jan. 25 @Kamehameha
Sat., Feb. 1 @Hilo
Sat., Feb. 8 BIIF @Konawaena
Fri. and Sat., Feb. 21 and 22 HHSAA

Sat., Jan. 25 @Kona Community Aquatic Center
Fri., Jan. 31 and Sat., Feb. 1 BIIF @Kamehameha
Fri. and Sat., Feb. 14 and 15 on Maui

Palm Trail, Saturday, Jan. 25, 9:30-12:30p.m., Kahuku Unit, HVNP. Free, relatively difficult, 2.6-mile, hike. Bring snack and water. nps.gov/havo

Sounds at the SummitHilo Jazz Orchestra Frank Zappa Tribute, Saturday, Jan. 25, 5:30-7:30p.m. Hawaiʻi Island musician and composer Trever Veilleux, director. Annual concert tends to sell out. 967-8222, volcanoartcenter.org

Blue Tattoo Band, Saturday, Jan. 25, 7-10p.m.Kīlauea Military Camp's Lava Lounge, in HVNP. $5 cover charge, free to in-house guests. Open to authorized patrons and sponsored guests. Park entrance fees apply. kilaueamilitarycamp.com

Cultural Understanding Through Art & the Environment: Kapa Aloha ʻĀina, the fabric of Hawaiʻi with Puakea Forester, Monday, Jan. 27 – fourth Monday, monthly – 2:30-4:30p.m.Volcano Art Center. Pre-registration required; class size limited. $10 per person supply fee. 967-8222, volcanoartcenter.org

After Dark in the Park – Seismicity of the 2018 Kīlauea Volcano Eruption, Tuesday, Jan. 28, 7-8p.m., Kīlauea Visitor Center Auditorium. HVO seismologist Brian Shiro recounts the 2018 earthquake story, including how HVO adapted its techniques to monitor the events, and describes current levels of seismicity and HVO’s ongoing efforts to improve seismic monitoring. Free; Park entrance fees apply. 985-6101, nps.gov/havo

H.O.V.E. Road Maintenance Corp. Board Mtg., Tuesday, Jan. 28 – last Tuesday, monthly – 10a.m., H.O.V.E. RMC office, 92-8979 Lehua Lane, Ocean View. 929-9910, hoveroad.com

Ka‘ū Food Pantry, Tuesday, Jan. 28 – last Tuesday, monthly – 11:30a.m.-1p.m., St. Jude's Episcopal Church in Ocean View. Volunteers welcome. Dave Breskin, 319-8333

Public Information Mtg. by County of Hawai‘i Department of Environmental Management's Solid Waste Division, Wednesday, Jan. 29 at Nā‘ālehu Clubhouse, 95-5635 Māmalahoa Hwy, from 5:30 p.m. to 6:30 p.m. The public is encouraged to attend and give input. The Solid Waste Division will be discussing the facilities' operating days and the possibility of modifying the current schedule for transfer stations. Visit hawaiizerowaste.org or call the Solid Waste Division Office at 961-8270 for more.

Lava Tubes of Ocean View, Tuesday, Jan. 28, 6:30 p.m. to 7:30 p.m. at Ocean View Community Center. Presented by Peter and Annie Bosted, it will include presentation of images of the underground in the Ocean View area – especially an extensive system in the Kahuku Unit of the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, which abuts HOVE – and Hawaiian lava tubes in general. Those who want to know more about what's going on under their feet, and those curious about lava tubes are invited to the free presentation, along with family and friends, said the Bosteds.

Ka‘ū Food Basket, Thursday, Jan. 30 – last Thursday, monthly – 11a.m.-noonPāhala Community Center. 928-3102

The Next Mauna Loa Eruption and the 2018 Kīlauea Eruption talk, Thursday, Jan. 30, 6p.m.Ocean View Community Center, 92-8924 Leilani Circle. To close out 11th annual Volcano Awareness month, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Scientist-in-Charge Tina Neal and Hawaiʻi County Civil Defense Administrator Talmadge Magno will talk about the current status of Mauna Loa, hazards of future eruptions, experiences from Kīlauea 2018 eruption, preparing for next Mauna Loa eruption, and how communities can stay informed. The meeting is free and open to public. More info at "HVO News" at volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/, (808) 967-8844, or askHVO@usgs.gov.

Volcano Friends Feeding Friends, Thursday, Jan. 30 – last Thursday, monthly – 4-6p.m., Cooper Center, Volcano Village. Free community dinner for all. Additional packaged goods to take home for those in need. Donations and volunteers encouraged. 967-7800, thecoopercenter.org

Kahuku Coffee Talk – Makahiki: A Celebrated Season, Friday, Jan. 31 – last Friday, monthly – 9:30-11a.m., Kahuku Unit Visitor Contact Station. Free. nps.gov/havo

Apply for Mosaics of Science by Monday, Feb. 3. Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park's 12-week paid summer internship position is designed to engage university students and recent graduates with on-the-ground work experience in the National Park Service. A $4,800 stipend, and all travel costs are covered, including a week-long career workshop in WashingtonD.C. to meet with NPS managers.
     The internship is open to U.S. citizens and permanent legal residents ages 18-30, and to military veterans up to age 35. Funding is provided under a cooperative agreement for youth conservation activities as part of the Public Lands Corps program, which mandates that these age ranges are followed. 
     The selected intern will assist with the development of education curriculum for Kīpukapuaulu and Pu‘u Loa trails in Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park.
     For more information, contact Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park Education Specialist Jody Anastasio by email at jody_anastasio@nps.gov. To apply go to go.nps.gov/mosaics or

T-Ball and Coach Pitch Baseball League: Ocean View Team - Mondays and Wednesdays, Kahuku Park. Nā‘ālehu Team - Tuesdays and Thursdays, Nā‘ālehu Park. Pāhala Team (seeking coaches) - attend Nā‘ālehu practice. T-Ball, 3:30-4:30pm, ages 5-6. Coach Pitch, 4:30-6p.m., ages 7-8. Programs take place through April 16. Wear cleats or tennis shoes, bring a glove if possible. Extras gloves available for use. All skills and genders welcome. $35 per teammate. See Ka‘ū Youth Baseball on Facebook. Josh or Elizabeth Crook, 345-0511

Tūtū & Me Home Visiting Program is a free service to Pāhala families with keiki, birth to five years old. This caregiver support program offers those taking care of young keiki "a compassionate listening ear, helpful parenting tips and strategies, fun and exciting activities, and wonderful educational resources" from Tūtū & Me Traveling Preschool. Home visits are one hour in length, two to four times per month, for 12 to 15 visits. Snacks are provided. See pidfoundation.org or call 808-938-1088.

To read comments, add your own, and like this story, see Facebook. Follow us on Instagram and Twitter. See our online calendars and our latest print edition at kaucalendar.com.