The eruption in Halema‘uma‘u, at Kīlauea's summit, continues Saturday evening. USGS photo by L. DeSmither
"The island appears to be blanketed with a new coating of spatter and tephra from nearby fissures within the lava lake, with minor overflows at the edges," reports USGS. Measurements by field crews indicated that the highest point on the island was 8 m (26 ft) higher than it was earlier this month; since it is unlikely that the deposit of new spatter and tephra is actually this thick, the measurements seem to indicate the island has lifted up and is floating within the lava lake once again, reports USGS.
With permission from Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists continue to monitor
the ongoing eruption within Halema‘uma‘u, at Kīlauea's summit. As of Saturday evening, no significant changes occurred
over the past 24 hours. When HVO geologists are not in the field, webcameras, such as one pictured here, allow HVO staff
and the public to monitor the eruption remotely. Kīlauea summit webcams are available here. USGS photo by L. DeSmither.
|Saturday evening view of the lava lake and floating island at Halema'uma'u. |
USGS photo by L. DeSmither.
Dr. Angie Miyashiro, right, with Future Health Professionals organization members at Kaʻū
High School. At left is Lark Morin who works for the State HOSA, is in charge of the UH Hilo HOSA, and
supervises the Maui HOSA. Photo from Angie Miyashiro
in the broader community through health advocacy opportunities.
|Dr. Angie Miyashiro leads HOSA at Kaʻū High. In 2018, she |
was Kaʻū's teacher of the year, while her husband Stewart
Miyashiro was Teacher of the Year at Pāhoa High.
Between them is Gov. David Ige. Photo by David Berry
Miyashiro noted that HOSA provides a unique program of leadership development, motivation, and recognition designed to meet the needs of secondary and postsecondary students interested in health and medical professions. She called it a powerful instructional tool that works best when integrated into Health Science/Services curricula. She said that Health Services Career Pathway, Health Academy, and Small Learning Community teachers are committed to the development of their students with HOSA competitive events, community service projects, and leadership activities. Students who join HOSA receive training far beyond the basic technical skills needed for entry into the healthcare field. They are provided experiences that will strengthen their focus on education and training necessary for a career in healthcare.
Established in 1976, HOSA has grown to over 150,000 members among 49 state associations (including Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia). Through a student-led pipeline, HOSA members make significant contributions to overcoming the shortage of healthcare workers in our country, said Miyashiro.
SPINNER DOLPHINS OFTEN APPROACH SWIMMING HUMANS, but a new federal rule prohibits people from coming closer than 50 yards. The rule, which goes into effect Oct. 28, prohibits swimming with spinner dolphins and approaching them, even if on surfboard, paddleboard, canoe, kayak or other boat. The new rule, explained this week by NOAA Fisheries, covers all Hawaiian waters up to two nautical miles from shore, plus the interisland waters between Maui, Lana'i and Kaho'olawe.
According to the new rule, if spinners approach people and their marine going vessels, the humans won't be prosecuted by NOAA and its Hawai'i state partner Department of Land & Natural Resources,
under the following conditions:
People inadvertently coming within 50 yards of a Hawaiian spinner dolphin who are approached by a spinner dolphin, provided they make no effort to engage or pursue the animal and take immediate
steps to move away from it;
Vessels underway and approached by a spinner dolphin, provided they continue normal navigation and make no effort to engage or pursue the dolphin; Vessels transiting to or from a port, harbor, or in a restricted channel to maintain safe navigation when a 50-yard distance will not allow the vessel to maintain
Vessel operations necessary to avoid imminent and serious threats;
Vessels that are anchored or aground and approached by a spinner dolphin, provided the vessel makes no effort to engage or pursue the dolphin;
People or vessels conducting activities authorized through a NOAA Fisheries permit or authorization
Government vessels and personnel conducting official duties;
Commercial fishing vessels that incidentally “take” a spinner dolphin during normal fishing operations, provided that they operate legally according to the Marine Mammal Protection Act.
|Spinner dolphins face increasing pressure from people seeking|
close interactions. Shown here: Multiple boats and dozens of people
in the water with spinner dolphins. NOAA photo
VOLCANO WATCH REVIEWED THIS WEEK'S NEW ERUPTION IN HALEMA'UMA'U CRATER. The weekly column is written by USGS scientists and affiliates:
Like the prior eruption that began in December 2020, this new activity is confined entirely within Halemaʻumaʻu. The new lava is continuing to fill the crater that collapsed in 2018 and is creating a new lava lake on top of the older one. Similar lava lakes frequently formed after collapse events in Halemaʻumaʻu in the 1800s. This pattern of summit collapse and subsequent lava lake filling is one that Kīlauea has exhibited in the past.
Both the December 2020 eruption and current eruption were immediately preceded by about an hour of elevated seismicity beneath Halemaʻumaʻu. However, increased earthquake activity in the summit or upper East Rift Zone—as well as intrusions of magma beneath the summit region—provided clues of increased eruption potential prior to the eruptions.
Following the intrusion of magma into Kīlauea’s south caldera and Southwest Rift Zone in late-August 2021, earthquake counts dropped to very low levels. Earthquake activity slightly increased on September 24, breaking the one-month-long seismically quiet period.
A swarm of earthquakes began in the upper East Rift Zone beneath Pauahi Crater just before midnight on September 28 and alerted HVO seismologists to an increase in activity. Overnight, smaller earthquakes were recorded closer to the summit followed by a smaller swarm near Puhimau Crater on Chain of Craters road within Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. After a relatively quite morning on September 29, earthquake activity abruptly increased beneath Kīlauea’s summit around 2:00 p.m. About 30 minutes later the intensity, frequencies, and shallowness of earthquakes coupled with rapid changes in ground deformation patterns, indicated magma was moving upward beneath Halemaʻumaʻu.
|Aerial image of eruption in Halemaʻumaʻu at Kīlauea Volcano's summit taken during|
an overflight at approximately 7:30 a.m. HST on Sept. 30. USGS image by K. Mulliken
Summit tiltmeters began to record a higher rate of inflationary tilt during the 40 minutes preceding the start of the eruption; a total of 11 microradians at the nearest instrument. After the onset of the eruption, the tilt changed to a steady deflationary trend that is continuing.
Immediately before lava erupted, uplift of the older, solidified crust was seen in a few webcam image frames in the area where the fissures opened. The initial fissure cut across the middle of the Halemaʻumaʻu crater floor and was followed about an hour later (around 4:40 p.m.) by a fissure with several vents on the western wall of Halemaʻumaʻu. Multiple active vents continue to feed the growing lava lake that has risen approximately 20 m (65 ft) since the eruption started. The tallest lava fountain, near the southern end of the lava lake, has been measured at sustained heights of approximately 20–25 m (65–82 ft) throughout the night and into the morning of September 30th.
A preliminary calculation of the average eruption rate so far was approximately 120 cubic meters (4,238 cubic ft) per second resulting in a total erupted volume of roughly 10 million cubic meters (350 million cubic ft). These high eruption rates are accompanied by huge releases of volcanic gases—especially sulfur dioxide (SO2)—which is one of the primary hazards related to summit eruptions. Initial rates of SO2 emissions were measured at about 85,000 tonnes per day just after the start of the eruption.
The opening phases of eruptions can be unpredictable before the eruptive vents stabilize and HVO staff continue to monitor the ongoing eruption for any future changes. And while it’s not possible to predict exactly how long the current eruption may last, we expect that more summit and upper rift zone eruptions are likely in the coming years as Kīlauea continues to re-pressurize and re-establish magma pathways after the 2018 eruption.
A helicopter overflight on September 30, 2021, at approximately 7:30 a.m. HST allowed for aerial visual and thermal imagery to be collected of Halema‘uma‘u crater at the summit of Kīlauea. This thermal map shows a closer view of the new lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u. The scale of the thermal map ranges from blue to red, with blue colors indicative of cooler temperatures and red colors indicative of warmer temperatures. The dimensions of the new lava lake are 980 m (1070 yd) E-W axis and 710 m (780 yd) in N-S axis. The estimated area of the lake is about 52 hectares (127 acres). USGS map by M. Patrick.
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