|"Masks are still to be used here!" says the sign at Mizuno's in Pāhala on Saturday morning. It also says,|
"Thanks for your understanding." Photo by Julia Neal
MOST BUSINESSES IN KAʻŪ AND VOLCANO HAVE ENDED INDOOR MASK WEARING REQUIREMENTS, according to a phone and drive-by survey taken on Saturday. The state ended its indoor mask-wearing mandate Friday at midnight. However, a few places are sticking with the protective policy to help prevent another rise in Covid cases.
In Volcano, ʻŌhelo Café not only still requires the wearing of masks, diners must also show a vaccination certificate.
|Kahuku Garden & Gift advertiser, "No Mask Needed."|
Photo by Katie Graham
In Nāʻālehu, Will & Grace, which provides packaged and fresh food and Kaʻū Coffee, also kept its mask mandate. "Please wear your safety mask. Before Enter the Store," is the message from management on the sign.
|Kahuku Mini Mart welcomed customers|
with and without masks on Saturday.
Photo by Katie Graham
Aloha, Not Covid."
|"Masks are recommended indoors,|
however no longer required," says
the sign at Volcano Art Center Gallery.
Masks are also required on school buses and all public transportation, as well as in hospitals, clinics and care homes.
|Lt, Gov Josh Green in blue with his wife Jamie|
and Hawaiian Homesteaders Saturday morning.
Photo from GreenforHawaii.com
"A century later, Native Hawaiians still face disparities in healthcare, education, housing, and more — and that needs to be addressed. In the years to come, it will be up to all of us to continue the legacy of Prince Kūhiō.
"As governor, I will work to fulfill the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands commitments to Native Hawaiians, build more affordable housing across our state, work to reduce and eliminate disparities in healthcare, and take action on our homeless crisis," said Green.
|Prince Johah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole|
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After an intrusion on March 5, Pu‘u‘ō‘ō crater floor subsided for several hours. Hot incandescent crater walls were exposed as the floor dropped a total of 113 m (371 ft). Frequent rockfalls into the crater triggered red ash plumes.
USGS photo by T. Orr on March 5, 2011, at 4:32 p.m.
A THIRTY-FIVE YEAR LONG ERUPTION IS THE FOCUS OF VOLCANO WATCH this week, written by U.S Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano scientists and affiliates:
The Pu‘u‘ō‘ō eruption on the middle East Rift Zone of Kīlauea was a remarkable opportunity for scientists to improve volcano research and monitoring. For the 11th anniversary of the Kamoamoa eruption, this week’s Volcano Watch is a photo essay that highlights the episode and some of the data collection efforts.
In the months leading up to the Kamoamoa eruption, lava filled Pu‘u‘ō‘ō crater. Steady inflation was recorded at Kīlauea’s summit and the middle East Rift Zone. As the system pressurized, seismicity increased in the upper East Rift Zone and the summit lava lake rose to the highest levels recorded before that time. On March 5, 2011, seismic tremor and increased earthquake activity, accompanied by rapid deflation at Pu‘u‘ō‘ō, began abruptly at 1:42 p.m. An intrusion uprift drew magma away from beneath Pu‘u‘ō‘ō. Shortly after, the Pu‘u‘ō‘ō crater floor began to subside and the summit lava lake level dropped.
|Aerial photo of the Kamoamoa eruption on March 7, 2011. The western fissure feeding a channelized ‘a‘ā flow is visible in the lower right, while the eastern end of the fissure system and Pu‘u‘ō‘ō crater are in the upper left. USGS photo by T. Orr|
The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), alerted by near real-time seismic alarms and deformation data, quickly conducted an overflight of the area and witnessed the start of the Kamoamoa eruption at 5:09 p.m. between Pu‘u‘ō‘ō and Nāpau craters. In the first few days, eruptive activity shifted around two fissure systems with vents repeatedly starting and stopping. Early on March 8, the eruption focused on the two opposite ends of the fissures. The activity waned in the afternoon of March 9, and around 10:30 p.m. the Kamoamoa eruptive episode was over.
The dike and subsequent eruption acted as a pressure release valve of Kīlauea’s magma plumbing system that had been pressurizing for months. This led to a short-lived eruption hiatus on the East Rift Zone and low lava lake levels at the summit while the system recovered.
|Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists map and measure ground cracks during the Kamoamoa eruption. |
USGS photo by N. Richter on March 6, 2011
During the eruption, to supplement the near real-time data from HVO monitoring stations, scientists also collected lava samples and gas measurements, mapped lava flows and ground cracks, took photos and detailed field notes, along with other tasks. These important data sets help us to better understand volcanic eruptions and their processes. Analyses of multiple lava samples taken throughout the eruption showed that the erupted lava was initially more evolved than the lava collected on the Pu‘u‘ō‘ō flow fields prior to the Kamoamoa eruption. This means that the dike which fed the eruption either pushed out, or mixed with, a body of cooler magma that had been stored in the rift. As the eruption continued, the lava compositions began to resemble those previously erupted at Pu‘u‘ō‘ō, as “fresher” lava flushed through the system—like what we saw in the beginning of the 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption.
Studying eruptive episodes on Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone using a multi-disciplinary approach has improved scientific understanding of the volcano. Recognizable precursory changes observed at the summit and Pu‘u‘ō‘ō have helped HVO anticipate new eruptions including Kamoamoa and the 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption. For over a year, Kīlauea eruptions have been confined to the summit with no indications of magma migration into the East Rift Zone, providing scientists with additional opportunities to learn about the volcano.
Scientists collect volcanic gas data using a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR). During the Kamoamoa eruption, sulfur dioxide emission rates from Kīlauea’s East Rift Zone reached the highest levels since the episodes of high-fountaining at Pu‘u‘ō‘ō (1983–1986) with an average rate of 8,500 tonnes per day and a peak value of 11,000 tonnes per day.
USGS photo by J. Sutton on March 6, 2011
SEE UPCOMING EVENTS IN KAʻŪ & VOLCANO